Figure 5: An important sialochemical effect of xylitol diet. Increase of the free amino acid content (in mol/L, thin line) of whole-mouth saliva after long-term consumption of a xylitol diet, shown in a polar co-ordination diagram [13]. The analysis was carried out on pooled saliva of subjects who had consumed the xylitol diet for 12 to 16.5 months (average consumption level of xylitol: about 65 g/day). The solid black area shows the free amino acid levels in saliva of subjects who consumed a regular sugar-containing diet. The high levels of ammonia and most amino acids (which can in turn serve as sources of further ammonia production) speak for reduced plaque acidity and increased nitrogen metabolism in dental plaque from which a large part of the free amino acid pool of whole-mouth saliva is derived. Non-standard abbreviations: CIT = citrulline; TAU = taurine; PSE = phosphoserine. Reproduced with permission [14].