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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 148261, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/148261
Review Article

The Current and Future Therapies of Bone Regeneration to Repair Bone Defects

1Division of Molecular Signaling and Biochemistry, Department of Biosciences, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580, Japan
2Center for Oral Biological Research, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580, Japan
3Department of Cardiology and Periodontology, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580, Japan
4Department of Clinical Communication Practice, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580, Japan

Received 10 November 2011; Accepted 31 December 2011

Academic Editor: Kotaro Tanimoto

Copyright © 2012 Eijiro Jimi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bone defects often result from tumor resection, congenital malformation, trauma, fractures, surgery, or periodontitis in dentistry. Although dental implants serve as an effective treatment to recover mouth function from tooth defects, many patients do not have the adequate bone volume to build an implant. The gold standard for the reconstruction of large bone defects is the use of autogenous bone grafts. While autogenous bone graft is the most effective clinical method, surgical stress to the part of the bone being extracted and the quantity of extractable bone limit this method. Recently mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies have the potential to provide an effective treatment of osseous defects. In this paper, we discuss both the current therapy for bone regeneration and the perspectives in the field of stem cell-based regenerative medicine, addressing the sources of stem cells and growth factors used to induce bone regeneration effectively and reproducibly.