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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 679312, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/679312
Research Article

Microbial Changes in Subgingival Plaque and Polymicrobial Intracellular Flora in Buccal Cells after Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Therapy: A Preliminary Study

1Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09121 Cagliari, Italy
2Neurogenetic and Neuropharmacology Institute, Italian National Research Council, 09121 Cagliari, Italy

Received 16 July 2013; Revised 1 September 2013; Accepted 2 September 2013

Academic Editor: Timo Sorsa

Copyright © 2013 Caterina Montaldo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The oral ecosystem is strictly related to a balance maintained by specific niches recognized as sites, where oral bacteria can metabolize avoiding the immune system response. The oral bacteria species that colonize the ecological niches vary during fixed orthodontic treatment, with a prevalence of periodontal bacterial species. Qualitative analysis of five periodontal pathogens was used to investigate the microbial colonization rate in the crevice and buccal epithelial cells. The presence of inadequate oral hygiene was considered as a modulation variable for microbial colonization. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher’s exact test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. A value lower than 0.05 was assumed as statistically significant. Tannerella forsythia was the only periodontal pathogen detected with a statistically admissible frequency. The positivity for Tannerella forsythia was correlated to sampling time and oral hygiene motivation. In buccal epithelial cells, both factors contributed to microbial decrease ( ), whereas, in crevice, oral hygiene motivation promoted a decrease in the microbial colonization rate ( ). According to microbiological findings, it is possible to identify how correct motivation for oral hygiene is more than enough to modulate or to avoid an upset of the oral ecosystem balance in early stages of orthodontic treatment.