Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 740680, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/740680
Review Article

Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Surgical Methods

1Department of Periodontics, Texas A & M University Baylor College of Dentistry, 3302 Gaston Avenue, Dallas, TX 75246, USA
2Private Practice of Periodontics, 5465 Blair Road, Suite 200, Dallas TX 75231, USA

Received 22 February 2013; Revised 11 July 2013; Accepted 15 July 2013

Academic Editor: Roland Frankenberger

Copyright © 2013 Pilar Valderrama and Thomas G. Wilson Jr. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Mombelli, M. A. van Oosten, E. Schurch Jr., and N. P. Land, “The microbiota associated with successful or failing osseointegrated titanium implants,” Oral Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 145–151, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. J. Froum and P. S. Rosen, “A proposed classification for peri-implantitis,” International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 533–540, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. B. Klinge and D. van Steenberghe, “Working group on treatment options for the maintenance of marginal bone around endosseous oral implants, Stockholm, Sweden, 8 and 9 September 2011. Methodology,” European Journal of Oral Implantology, vol. 5, supplement, pp. S9–S12.
  4. M. A. Atieh, N. H. Alsabeeha, C. M. Faggion Jr., and W. J. Duncan, “The frequency of peri-implant diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Periodontology, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. G. E. Romanos and D. Weitz, “Therapy of peri-implant diseases. Where is the evidence?” The Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice, vol. 12, supplement 3, pp. 204–208, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. C. M. Faggion Jr., L. Chambrone, S. Listl, and Y.-K. Tu, “Network meta-analysis for evaluating interventions in implant dentistry: the case of peri-implantitis treatment,” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Louropoulou, D. E. Slot, and F. A. Van der Weijden, “Titanium surface alterations following the use of different mechanical instruments: a systematic review,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 643–658, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. P. Lang, T. G. Wilson, and E. F. Corbet, “Biological complications with dental implants: their prevention, diagnosis and treatment,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 11, pp. 146–155, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J.-J. Suh, Z. Simon, Y.-S. Jeon, B.-G. Choi, and C.-K. Kim, “The use of implantoplasty and guided bone regeneration in the treatment of peri-implantitis: two case reports,” Implant Dentistry, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 277–282, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Quirynen, H. C. van der Mei, C. M. Bollen et al., “An in vivo study of the influence of the surface roughness of implants on the microbiology of supra- and subgingival plaque,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 1304–1309, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Subramani, R. E. Jung, A. Molenberg, and C. H. F. Hammerle, “Biofilm on dental implants: a review of the literature,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 616–626, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Romeo, M. Ghisolfi, and D. Carmagnola, “Peri-implant diseases. A systematic review of the literature,” Minerva Stomatologica, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 215–230, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Augthun, J. Tinschert, and A. Huber, “In vitro studies on the effect of cleaning methods on different implant surfaces,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 857–864, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. E. Barbour, D. J. O'Sullivan, H. F. Jenkinson, and D. C. Jagger, “The effects of polishing methods on surface morphology, roughness and bacterial colonisation of titanium abutments,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1439–1447, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Romeo, D. Lops, M. Chiapasco, M. Ghisolfi, and G. Vogel, “Therapy of peri-implantitis with resective surgery. A 3-year clinical trial on rough screw-shaped oral implants. Part II: radiographic outcome,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 179–187, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. Romeo, M. Ghisolfi, N. Murgolo, M. Chiapasco, D. Lops, and G. Vogel, “Therapy of peri-implantitis with resective surgery: a 3-year clinical trial on rough screw-shaped oral implants. Part I: clinical outcome,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 9–18, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. J. A. Heitz-Mayfield and N. P. Lang, “Antimicrobial treatment of peri-implant diseases,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 19, pp. 128–139, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Schwarz, N. Sahm, and J. Becker, “Combined surgical therapy of advanced peri-implantitis lesions with concomitant soft tissue volume augmentation. A case series,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. F. Schwarz, N. Sahm, G. Iglhaut, and J. Becker, “Impact of the method of surface debridement and decontamination on the clinical outcome following combined surgical therapy of peri-implantitis: a randomized controlled clinical study,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 276–284, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. Schwarz, G. John, S. Mainusch, N. Sahm, and J. Becker, “Combined surgical therapy of peri-implantitis evaluating two methods of surface debridement and decontamination. A two-year clinical follow up report,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 789–797, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. E. Sharon, L. Shapira, A. Wilensky, R. Abu-hatoum, and A. Smidt, “Efficiency and thermal changes during implantoplasty in relation to bur type,” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 292–296, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. Schwarz, D. Ferrari, K. Popovski, B. Hartig, and J. Becker, “Influence of different air-abrasive powders on cell viability at biologically contaminated titanium dental implants surfaces,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 83–91, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. S. Tastepe, R. van Waas, Y. Liu, and D. Wismeijer, “Air powder abrasive treatment as an implant surface cleaning method: a literature review,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1461–1473, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. R. S. Finlayson and F. D. Stevens, “Subcutaneous facial emphysema secondary to use of the Cavi-Jet,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 315–317, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Meyle, “Mechanical, chemical and laser treatments of the implant surface in the presence of marginal bone loss around implants,” European Journal of Oral Implantology, vol. 5, supplement, pp. S71–S81, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  26. R. Mengel, C.-E. Buns, C. Mengel, and L. Flores-de-Jacoby, “An in vitro study of the treatment of implant surfaces with different instruments,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 91–96, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J.-P. Chairay, H. Boulekbache, A. Jean, A. Soyer, and P. Bouchard, “Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the effects of an air-abrasive system on dental implants: a comparative in vitro study between machined and plasma-sprayed titanium surfaces,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 1215–1222, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Mouhyi, L. Sennerby, J.-J. Pireaux, N. Dourov, S. Nammour, and J. Van Reck, “An XPS and SEM evaluation of six chemical and physical techniques for cleaning of contaminated titanium implants,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 185–194, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. M. Duarte, A. F. Reis, P. M. D. Freitas, and C. Ota-Tsuzuki, “Bacterial adhesion on smooth and rough titanium surfaces after treatment with different instruments,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 1824–1832, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Schou, P. Holmstrup, T. Jørgensen et al., “Implant surface preparation in the surgical treatment of experimental peri-implantitis with autogenous bone graft and ePTFE membrane in cynomolgus monkeys,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 412–422, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. Deppe, H.-H. Horch, J. Henke, and K. Donath, “Peri-implant care of ailing implants with the carbon dioxide laser,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 659–667, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Parlar, D. D. Bosshardt, D. Etiner et al., “Effects of decontamination and implant surface characteristics on re-osseointegration following treatment of peri-implantitis,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 391–399, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. J. Froum, S. H. Froum, and P. S. Rosen, “Successful management of peri-implantitis with a regenerative approach: a consecutive series of 51 treated implants with 3- to 7.5-year follow-up,” The International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 11–20, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  34. T. Bergendal, L. Forsgren, S. Kvint, and E. Löwstedt, “The effect of an airbrasive instrument on soft and hard tissues around osseointegrated implants. A case report,” Swedish Dental Journal, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 219–223, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. B. Park, Y. J. Jang, M. Koh, B. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, and Y. Ko, “In vitro analysis of the efficacy of ultrasonic scalers and a toothbrush for removing bacteria from RBM titanium discs,” Journal of Periodontology, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. T. Berglundh, K. Gotfredsen, N. U. Zitzmann, N. P. Lang, and J. Lindhe, “Spontaneous progression of ligature induced peri-implantitis at implants with different surface roughness: an experimental study in dogs,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 655–661, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. M. L. Bollen, W. Papaioanno, J. Van Eldere, E. Schepers, M. Quirynen, and D. Van Steenberghe, “The influence of abutment surface roughness on plaque accumulation and peri-implant mucositis,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 201–211, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. F. Schwarz, S. Jepsen, M. Herten, M. Sager, D. Rothamel, and J. Becker, “Influence of different treatment approaches on non-submerged and submerged healing of ligature induced peri-implantitis lesions: an experimental study in dogs,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 584–595, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. H. Zablotsky, D. L. Diedrich, and R. M. Meffert, “Detoxification of endotoxin-contaminated titanium and hydroxyapatite-coated surfaces utilizing various chemotherapeutic and mechanical modalities,” Implant Dentistry, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 154–158, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. K. Dennison, M. B. Huerzeler, C. Quinones, and R. G. Caffese, “Contaminated implant surfaces: an in vitro comparison of implant surface coating and treatment modalities for decontamination,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 942–948, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Gosau, S. Hahnel, F. Schwarz, T. Gerlach, T. E. Reichert, and R. Bürgers, “Effect of six different peri-implantitis disinfection methods on in vivo human oral biofilm,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 866–872, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Mouhyi, L. Sennerby, A. Wennerberg, P. Louette, N. Dourov, and J. van Reck, “Re-establishment of the atomic composition and the oxide structure of contaminated titanium surfaces by means of carbon dioxide laser and hydrogen peroxide: an in vitro study,” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 190–202, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. G. Kolonidis, S. Renvert, C. H. F. Hämmerle, N. P. Lang, D. Harris, and N. Claffey, “Osseointegration on implant surfaces previously contaminated with plaque: an experimental study in the dog,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 373–380, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Alhag, S. Renvert, I. Polyzois, and N. Claffey, “Re-osseointegration on rough implant surfaces previously coated with bacterial biofilm: an experimental study in the dog,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 182–187, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. O. Hanisch, D. N. Tatakis, M. M. Boskovic, M. D. Rohrer, and U. M. E. Wikesjö, “Bone formation and reosseointegration in peri-implantitis defects following surgical implantation of rhBMP-2,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 604–610, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. L. F. Guimarães, T. K. Fidalgo, G. C. Menezes, L. G. Primo, and F. Costa e Silva-Filho, “Effects of citric acid on cultured human osteoblastic cells,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 665–669, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. W. C. Lan, W. H. Lan, C. P. Chan, C. C. Hsieh, M. C. Chang, and J.-H. Jeng, “The effects of extracellular citric acid acidosis on the viability, cellular adhesion capacity and protein synthesis of cultured human gingival fibroblasts,” Australian Dental Journal, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 123–130, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. W. Cohen and S. L. Atlas, “Chlorhexidine gluconate in periodontal treatment,” Compendium. Supplement, no. 18, pp. S711–S714, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. C. Wetzel, J. Vlassis, R. G. Caffesse, C. H. F. Hämmerle, and N. P. Lang, “Attempts to obtain re-osseointegration following experimental peri-implantitis in dogs,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 111–119, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T.-M. You, B.-H. Choi, S.-J. Zhu et al., “Treatment of experimental peri-implantitis using autogenous bone grafts and platelet-enriched fibrin glue in dogs,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 34–37, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Schou, P. Holmstrup, L. T. Skovgaard, K. Stoltze, E. Hjørting-Hansen, and H. J. G. Gundersen, “Autogenous bone graft and ePTFE membrane in the treatment of peri-implantitis. II. Stereologic and histologic observations in cynomolgus monkeys,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 404–411, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. H. Hämmerle, I. Fourmousis, J. R. Winkler, C. Weigel, U. Brägger, and N. P. Lang, “Successful bone fill in late peri-implant defects using guided tissue regeneration. A short communication,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 303–308, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. B. Lehmann, U. Bragger, C. H. Hammerle, I. Fourmousis, and N. P. Lang, “Treatment of an early implant failure according to the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR),” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 42–48, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. Y. C. de Waal, G. M. Raghoebar, J. J. Huddleston Slater, H. J. Meijer, E. G. Winkel, and A. J. van Winkelhoff, “Implant decontamination during surgical peri-implantitis treatment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 186–195, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. F. Verdugo, A. Sáez-Rosón, A. Uribarri et al., “Bone microbial decontamination agents in osseous grafting: an in vitro study with fresh human explants,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 863–871, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Giannelli, F. Chellini, M. Margheri, P. Tonelli, and A. Tani, “Effect of chlorhexidine digluconate on different cell types: a molecular and ultrastructural investigation,” Toxicology In Vitro, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 308–317, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T.-H. Lee, C.-C. Hu, S.-S. Lee, M.-Y. Chou, and Y.-C. Chang, “Cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine on human osteoblastic cells is related to intracellular glutathione levels,” International Endodontic Journal, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 430–435, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. C. Wohlfahrt, S. P. Lyngstadaas, H. J. Rønold et al., “Porous titanium granules in the surgical treatment of peri-implant osseous defects: a randomized clinical trial,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 401–410, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  59. R. Bürgers, C. Witecy, S. Hahnel, and M. Gosau, “The effect of various topical peri-implantitis antiseptics on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans, and Streptococcus sanguinis,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 940–947, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. V. I. Ntrouka, D. E. Slot, A. Louropoulou, and F. Van der Weijden, “The effect of chemotherapeutic agents on contaminated titanium surfaces: a systematic review,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 681–690, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. J. A. Heitz-Mayfield, G. E. Salvi, A. Mombelli, M. Faddy, and N. P. Lang, “Anti-infective surgical therapy of peri-implantitis. A 12-month prospective clinical study,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 205–210, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. G. Persson, M. G. Araújo, T. Berglundh, K. Gröndahl, and J. Lindhe, “Resolution of peri-implantitis following treatment—an experimental study in the dog,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 195–203, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. L. G. Persson, J. Mouhyi, T. Berglundh, L. Sennerby, and J. Lindhe, “Carbon dioxide laser and hydrogen peroxide conditioning in the treatment of periimplantitis: an experimental study in the dog,” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 230–238, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. E. E. Hall, R. M. Meffert, J. S. Hermann, J. T. Mellonig, and D. L. Cochran, “Comparison of bioactive glass to demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft in the treatment of intrabony defects around implants in the canine mandible,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 526–535, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. Tinti and S. Parma-Benfenati, “Treatment of peri-implant defects with the vertical ridge augmentation procedure: a patient report,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 572–577, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J.-B. Park, “Treatment of peri-implantitis with deproteinised bovine bone and tetracycline: a case report,” Gerodontology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 145–149, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. F. Schwarz, A. Sculean, G. Romanos et al., “Influence of different treatment approaches on the removal of early plaque biofilms and the viability of SAOS2 osteoblasts grown on titanium implants,” Clinical Oral Investigations, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 111–117, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Yamamoto and T. Tanabe, “Treatment of peri-implantitis around TiUnite-surface implants using Er:YAG laser microexplosions,” The International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  69. S. Stubinger, C. Etter, M. Miskiewicz et al., “Surface alterations of polished and sandblasted and acid-etched titanium implants after Er:YAG, carbon dioxide, and diode laser irradiation,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 104–111, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. A. Takasaki, A. Aoki, K. Mizutani, S. Kikuchi, S. Oda, and I. Ishikawa, “Er:YAG laser therapy for peri-implant infection: a histological study,” Lasers in Medical Science, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 143–157, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. H. Gursoy, C. Ozcakir-Tomruk, J. Tanalp, and S. Yilmaz, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry: a literature review,” Clinical Oral Investigations, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1113–1125, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. D. Schär, C. A. Ramseier, S. Eick, N. B. Arweiler, A. Sculean, and G. E. Salvi, “Anti-infective therapy of peri-implantitis with adjunctive local drug delivery or photodynamic therapy: six-month outcomes of a prospective randomized clinical trial,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 104–110, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. N. De Angelis, P. Felice, M. G. Grusovin, A. Camurati, and M. Esposito, “The effectiveness of adjunctive light-activated disinfection (LAD) in the treatment of peri-implantitis: 4-month results from a multicentre pragmatic randomised controlled trial,” European Journal of Oral Implantology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 321–331, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  74. J. Marotti, P. Tortamano, S. Cai, M. S. Ribeiro, J. E. Franco, and T. T. de Campos, “Decontamination of dental implant surfaces by means of photodynamic therapy,” Lasers in Medical Science, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 303–309, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. J. A. Shibli, M. C. Martins, L. H. Theodoro, R. F. M. Lotufo, V. G. Garcia, and E. J. Marcantonio, “Lethal photosensitization in microbiological treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis: a preliminary study in dogs,” Journal of Oral Science, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 17–23, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. A. Shibli, M. C. Martins, F. H. Nociti Jr., V. G. Garcia, and E. Marcantonio Jr., “Treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis by lethal photosensitization and guided bone regeneration: a preliminary histologic study in dogs,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 338–345, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. O. Dörtbudak, R. Haas, T. Bernhart, and G. Mailath-Pokorny, “Lethal photosensitization for decontamination of implant surfaces in the treatment of peri-implantitis,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 104–108, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. F. Schwarz, G. Iglhaut, and J. Becker, “Quality assessment of reporting of animal studies on pathogenesis and treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. A systematic review using the ARRIVE guidelines,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 63–72, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. F. Graziani, E. Figuero, and D. Herrera, “Systematic review of quality of reporting, outcome measurements and methods to study efficacy of preventive and therapeutic approaches to peri-implant diseases,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 224–244, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. M. Faggion Jr. and M. Schmitter, “Using the best available evidence to support clinical decisions in implant dentistry,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 960–969, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. C. M. Faggion Jr., S. Listl, and Y.-K. Tu, “Assessment of endpoints in studies on peri-implantitis treatment–a systematic review,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 443–450, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus