Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 768121, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/768121
Review Article

Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

1School of Dentistry, Melbourne University, 720 Swanston Street, Carlton Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
2Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, 310 Great King Street, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand

Received 25 September 2012; Accepted 28 March 2013

Academic Editor: Moustafa N. Aboushelib

Copyright © 2013 Jaafar Abduo and Karl Lyons. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Kapos, L. M. Ashy, G. O. Gallucci, H. P. Weber, and D. Wismeijer, “Computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacturing in prosthetic implant dentistry,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 24, pp. 110–117, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Priest, “Virtual-designed and computer-milled implant abutments,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 22–32, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. van Noort, “The future of dental devices is digital,” Dental Materials, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. T. Miyazaki and Y. Hotta, “CAD/CAM systems available for the fabrication of crown and bridge restorations,” Australian Dental Journal, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 97–106, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. I. Sailer, T. Sailer, B. Stawarczyk, R. E. Jung, and C. H. Hämmerle, “In vitro study of the influence of the type of connection on the fracture load of zirconia abutments with internal and external implant-abutment connections,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 850–858, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. N. Aboushelib and Z. Salameh, “Zirconia implant abutment fracture: clinical case reports and precautions for use,” The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 616–619, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. J. Goodacre, W. V. Campagni, and S. A. Aquilino, “Tooth preparations for complete crowns: an art form based on scientific principles,” Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 363–376, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. C. Guess, W. Att, and J. R. Strub, “Zirconia in fixed implant prosthodontics,” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 633–645, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. N. R. F. A. Silva, E. A. Bonfante, B. T. Rafferty et al., “Modified Y-TZP core design improves all-ceramic crown reliability,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 104–108, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Kokubo, M. Tsumita, T. Kano, and S. Fukushima, “The influence of zirconia coping designs on the fracture load of all-ceramic molar crowns,” Dental Materials Journal, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 281–285, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. C. Guess, E. A. Bonfante, N. R. Silva et al., “Effect of core design and veneering technique on damage and reliability of Y-TZP-supported crowns,” Dental Materials, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 307–316, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  12. D. Furze, A. Byrne, N. Donos et al., “Clinical and esthetic outcomes of single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla,” Quintessence International, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 127–134, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  13. W. Chee and S. Jivraj, “Designing abutments for cement retained implant supported restorations,” British Dental Journal, vol. 201, no. 9, pp. 559–563, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. Sailer, A. Zembic, R. E. Jung, C. H. Hämmerle, and A. Mattiola, “Single-tooth implant reconstructions: esthetic factors influencing the decision between titanium and zirconia abutments in anterior regions,” The European Journal of Esthetic Dentistry, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 296–310, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Bernal, M. Okamura, and C. A. Muñoz, “The effects of abutment taper, length and cement type on resistance to dislodgement of cement-retained, implant-supported restorations,” Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 111–115, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Cano-Batalla, J. Soliva-Garriga, M. Campillo-Funollet et al., “Influence of abutment height and surface roughness on in vitro retention of three luting agents,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 36–41, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  17. J. Abduo, V. Bennani, N. Waddell, K. Lyons, and M. Swain, “Assessing the fit of implant fixed prostheses: a critical review,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 506–515, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. Heydecke, M. Sierraalta, and M. E. Razzoog, “Evolution and use of aluminum oxide single-tooth implant abutments: a short review and presentation of two cases,” The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 488–493, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. J. Kohal, W. Att, M. Bächle, and F. Butz, “Ceramic abutments and ceramic oral implants. An update,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 224–243, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Byrne, F. Houston, R. Cleary, and N. Claffey, “The fit of cast and premachined implant abutments,” The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 184–192, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. C. Kano, P. P. Binon, and D. A. Curtis, “A classification system to measure the implant-abutment microgap,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 879–885, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. W. Att, N. D. Yajima, M. Wolkewitz et al., “Influence of preparation and wall thickness on the resistance to fracture of zirconia implant abutments,” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, vol. 14, pp. 196–203, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  23. T. D. Taylor and J. R. Agar, “Twenty years of progress in implant prosthodontics,” Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 89–95, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. G. Lewis, J. Beumer 3rd. J., G. R. Perri, and W. P. Hornburg, “Single tooth implant supported restorations,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Örtorp, T. Jemt, T. Bäck, and T. Jälevik, “Comparisons of precision of fit between cast and CNC-milled titanium implant frameworks for the edentulous mandible,” The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 194–200, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Takahashi and J. Gunne, “Fit of implant frameworks: an in vitro comparison between two fabrication techniques,” Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 256–260, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Jemt, T. Bäck, and A. Petersson, “Precision of CNC-milled titanium frameworks for implant treatment in the edentulous jaw,” The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 209–215, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Abduo, K. Lyons, V. Bennani et al., “Fit of screw-retained fixed implant frameworks fabricated by different methods: a systematic review,” The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 207–220, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  29. A. Parpaiola, M. R. Norton, D. Cecchinato et al., “Virtual abutment design: a concept for delivery of CAD/CAM customized abutments- report of a retrospective cohort,” The International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  30. F. Beuer, J. Schweiger, and D. Edelhoff, “Digital dentistry: an overview of recent developments for CAD/CAM generated restorations,” British Dental Journal, vol. 204, no. 9, pp. 505–511, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Abduo, K. Lyons, and M. Swain, “Fit of zirconia fixed partial denture: a systematic review,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 866–876, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. L. Tan, D. G. Gratton, A. M. Diaz-Arnold, and D. C. Holmes, “An in vitro comparison of vertical marginal gaps of CAD/CAM titanium and conventional cast restorations,” Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 378–383, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W. B. Thompson, J. C. Owen, S. G. De, S. R. Stark, and T. C. Henderson, “Feature-based reverse engineering of mechanical parts,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–66, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Persson, M. Andersson, A. Oden, and G. Sandborgh-Englund, “A three-dimensional evaluation of a laser scanner and a touch-probe scanner,” Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 194–200, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Ender, W. H. Mörmann, and A. Mehl, “Efficiency of a mathematical model in generating CAD/CAM-partial crowns with natural tooth morphology,” Clinical Oral Investigations, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 283–289, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Mehl, V. Blanz, and R. Hickel, “Biogeneric tooth: a new mathematical representation for tooth morphology in lower first molars,” European Journal of Oral Sciences, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 333–340, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Örtorp, D. Jönsson, A. Mouhsen, and P. Vult Von Steyern, “The fit of cobalt-chromium three-unit fixed dental prostheses fabricated with four different techniques: a comparative in vitro study,” Dental Materials, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 356–363, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. B. Yüzügüllü and M. Avci, “The implant-abutment interface of alumina and zirconia abutments,” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 113–121, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. Vigolo, F. Fonzi, Z. Majzoub, and G. Cordioli, “An in vitro evaluation of titanium, zirconia, and alumina procera abutments with hexagonal connection,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 575–580, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Abduo, K. Lyons, N. Waddell et al., “A comparison of fit of CNC-milled titanium and zirconia frameworks to implants,” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, vol. 14, pp. 20–29, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  41. R. Glauser, I. Sailer, A. Wohlwend, S. Studer, M. Schibli, and P. Schärer, “Experimental zirconia abutments for implant-supported single-tooth restorations in esthetically demanding regions: 4-Year results of a prospective clinical study,” The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 285–290, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. Jemt, “Single implants in the anterior maxilla after 15 years of follow-up: comparison with central implants in the edentulous maxilla,” The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 400–408, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Ortorp and T. Jemt, “CNC-milled titanium frameworks supported by implants in the edentulous jaw: a 10-year comparative clinical study,” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 88–99, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  44. I. Denry and J. R. Kelly, “State of the art of zirconia for dental applications,” Dental Materials, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 299–307, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Yildirim, H. Fischer, R. Marx, and D. Edelhoff, “In vivo fracture resistance of implant-supported all-ceramic restorations,” Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 325–331, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. B. Kerstein and J. Radke, “A comparison of fabrication precision and mechanical reliability of 2 zirconia implant abutments,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1029–1036, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Hosseini, E. Kleven, and K. Gotfredsen, “Fracture mode during cyclic loading of implant-supported single-tooth restorations,” The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 74–83, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  48. P. Aramouni, E. Zebouni, E. Tashkandi, S. Dib, Z. Salameh, and K. Almas, “Fracture resistance and failure location of zirconium and metallic implant abutments,” Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 41–48, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. F. Butz, G. Heydecke, M. Okutan, and J. R. Strub, “Survival rate, fracture strength and failure mode of ceramic implant abutments after chewing simulation,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 838–843, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. W. Att, S. Kurun, T. Gerds, and J. R. Strub, “Fracture resistance of single-tooth implant-supported all-ceramic restorations after exposure to the artificial mouth,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 380–386, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. W. Att, S. Kurun, T. Gerds, and J. R. Strub, “Fracture resistance of single-tooth implant-supported all-ceramic restorations: an in vitro study,” Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 111–116, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. I. Sailer, B. E. Pjetursson, M. Zwahlen, and C. H. F. Hämmerle, “A systematic review of the survival and complication rates of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic reconstructions after an observation period of at least 3 years. Part II: fixed dental prostheses,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 86–96, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. Haraldson, G. E. Carlsson, and B. Ingervall, “Functional state, bite force and postural muscle activity in patients with osseointegrated oral implant bridges,” Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 195–206, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Kiliaridis, H. Kjellberg, B. Wenneberg, and C. Engström, “The relationship between maximal bite force, bite force endurance, and facial morphology during growth. A cross-sectional study,” Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 323–331, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Kokubo, M. Tsumita, S. Sakurai, K. Torizuka, P. Vult Von Steyern, and S. Fukushima, “The effect of core framework designs on the fracture loads of all-ceramic fixed partial dentures on posterior implants,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 503–507, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Schmitter, K. Mussotter, P. Rammelsberg et al., “Clinical performance of long-span zirconia frameworks for fixed dental prostheses: 5-year results,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 552–557, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  57. C. Sax, C. H. Hammerle, and I. Sailer, “10-year clinical outcomes of fixed dental prostheses with zirconia frameworks,” International Journal of Computerized Dentistry, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 183–202, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  58. R. J. Kohal, M. Wolkewitz, and C. Mueller, “Alumina-reinforced zirconia implants: survival rate and fracture strength in a masticatory simulation trial,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1345–1352, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. H. Q. Nguyen, K. B. Tan, and J. I. Nicholls, “Load fatigue performance of implant-ceramic abutment combinations,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 636–646, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. B. Ohlmann, K. Marienburg, O. Gabbert, A. Hassel, H. Gilde, and P. Rammelsberg, “Fracture-load values of all-ceramic cantilevered fpds with different framework designs,” The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 49–52, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. Ekfeldt, B. Furst, and G. E. Carlsson, “Zirconia abutments for single-tooth implant restorations: a retrospective and clinical follow-up study,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1308–1314, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  62. I. Sailer, A. Philipp, A. Zembic, B. E. Pjetursson, C. H. F. Hämmerle, and M. Zwahlen, “A systematic review of the performance of ceramic and metal implant abutments supporting fixed implant reconstructions,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 4–31, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. Larsson, P. Vult von Steyern, and K. Nilner, “A prospective study of implant-supported full-arch yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal mandibular fixed dental prostheses: three-year results,” The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 364–369, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. C. Larsson and P. Vult von Steyern, “Five-year follow-up of implant-supported Y-TZP and ZTA fixed dental prostheses. A randomized, prospective clinical trial comparing two different material systems,” The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 555–561, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. S. Park et al., “Fracture load of monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic crowns and veneered zirconia crowns as a posterior implant restoration,” Implant Dentistry, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 66–70, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  66. M. Karl, F. Graef, M. Wichmann et al., “Microfractures in metal-ceramic and all-ceramic implant-supported fixed dental prostheses caused by superstructure fixation,” Dental Materials Journal, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 338–345, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  67. M. V. Swain, “Unstable cracking (chipping) of veneering porcelain on all-ceramic dental crowns and fixed partial dentures,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1668–1677, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. F. Rojas-Vizcaya, “Full zirconia fixed detachable implant-retained restorations manufactured from monolithic zirconia: clinical report after two years in service,” Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 570–576, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  69. J. A. Sorensen, “CAD/CAM: converging technologies, improved milling materials expand dental applications,” Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 538–539, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  70. A. Coldea, M. V. Swain, and N. Thiel, “Mechanical properties of polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network materials,” Dental Materials, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 419–426, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. W. H. Mormann, B. Stawarczyk, A. Ender et al., “Wear characteristics of current aesthetic dental restorative CAD/CAM materials: two-body wear, gloss retention, roughness and Martens hardness,” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 20, pp. 113–125, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  72. G. Telleman, G. M. Raghoebar, A. Vissink, and H. J. A. Meijer, “The use of a coded healing abutment as an impression coping to design and mill an individualized anatomic abutment: a clinical report,” Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 282–285, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. Y. Grossmann, M. Pasciuta, and I. M. Finger, “A novel technique using a coded healing abutment for the fabrication of a CAD/CAM titanium abutment for an implant-supported restoration,” Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 258–261, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. C. D. Ramsey and R. G. Ritter, “Utilization of digital technologies for fabrication of definitive implant-supported restorations,” Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 299–308, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  75. A. Eliasson and A. Örtorp, “The accuracy of an implant impression technique using digitally coded healing abutments,” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, vol. 14, supplement s1, pp. e30–e38, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. K. X. Michalakis, H. Hirayama, and P. D. Garefis, “Cement-retained versus screw-retained implant restorations: a critical review,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 719–728, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. O. Rauscher, “Impression-free implant restorations with cerec inlab,” International Journal of Computerized Dentistry, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 139–146, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. D. K. Brown and A. G. T. Payne, “Immediately restored single implants in the aesthetic zone of the maxilla using a novel design: 1-year report,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 445–454, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus