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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 964631, 8 pages
Research Article

From 2D to 3D: Construction of a 3D Parametric Model for Detection of Dental Roots Shape and Position from a Panoramic Radiograph—A Preliminary Report

1Università di Genova, Via Fontevivo 21N, 19125 La Spezia, Italy
2Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Via Fontevivo 21N, 19125 La Spezia, Italy
3University of Pisa, Department of Nuclear Mechanical and Production Engineering, Via Giuntini, Navacchio, 13 56023 Pisa, Italy
4Università di Cagliari, Via Binaghi, 4-09121 Cagliari, Italy
5Trieste University, Piazzale Europa, 1 34128 Trieste, Italy
6Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry and Research Center for Material Science and Technology, Università di Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 6 16132 Genova, Italy

Received 21 December 2012; Accepted 3 February 2013

Academic Editor: Arndt Guentsch

Copyright © 2013 Laura Mazzotta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. To build a 3D parametric model to detect shape and volume of dental roots, from a panoramic radiograph (PAN) of the patient. Materials and Methods. A PAN and a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of a patient were acquired. For each tooth, various parameters were considered (coronal and root lengths and widths): these were measured from the CBCT and from the PAN. Measures were compared to evaluate the accuracy level of PAN measurements. By using a CAD software, parametric models of an incisor and of a molar were constructed employing B-spline curves and free-form surfaces. PAN measures of teeth 2.1 and 3.6 were assigned to the parametric models; the same two teeth were segmented from CBCT. The two models were superimposed to assess the accuracy of the parametric model. Results. PAN measures resulted to be accurate and comparable with all other measurements. From model superimposition the maximum error resulted was 1.1 mm on the incisor crown and 2 mm on the molar furcation. Conclusion. This study shows that it is possible to build a 3D parametric model starting from 2D information with a clinically valid accuracy level. This can ultimately lead to a crown-root movement simulation.