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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2014, Article ID 452737, 7 pages
Review Article

Is Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw an Infection? A Histological and Microbiological Ten-Year Summary

1University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), College of Medicine, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
3Department of Biostatistics, UAMS, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
4Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, UAMS, 4301 W. Markham Street No. 543, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA

Received 10 March 2014; Accepted 26 May 2014; Published 24 June 2014

Academic Editor: Giuliano Ascani

Copyright © 2014 A. M. Hinson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The role of infection in the etiology of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is poorly understood. Large-scale epidemiological descriptions of the histology and microbiology of BRONJ are not found in the literature. Herein, we present a systematic review of BRONJ histology and microbiology (including demographics, immunocompromised associations, clinical signs and symptoms, disease severity, antibiotic and surgical treatments, and recovery status) validating that infection should still be considered a prime component in the multifactorial disease.