International Journal of Dentistry https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. The Effect of Number of Teeth and Chewing Ability on Cognitive Function of Elderly in UAE: A Pilot Study Tue, 14 Nov 2017 09:03:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/5732748/ Cognitive decline is one of the major causes of disability among the aging population. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between oral health parameters (number of teeth, chewing ability, and presence of a denture) and cognitive function in the elderly across the UAE. Fifty persons (age ≥ 60; 71.26 ± 10.23) were enrolled in the study. Cognitive status was assessed using the standardized mini-mental state examination (SMMSE) and accordingly, cognitively normal subjects scoring ≥24 were considered as the control group and cognitively impaired individuals scoring ≤23 were considered as the low scoring group. Chewing ability was examined, number of teeth was noted, and demographical data was collected. The results of this pilot study showed that individuals with low SMMSE scores were significantly less educated () and had fewer number of remaining teeth () and impaired chewing ability (). These results demonstrate a significant link between the number of teeth, chewing ability, and cognitive function. However, this pilot study had its limitations and was the first of its kind in the UAE and Gulf region; therefore, future research addressing the limitations is needed to further explore this association. Zahra Seraj, Dana Al-Najjar, Mohammed Akl, Noorelrahman Aladle, Yousif Altijani, Ahmed Zaki, and Sausan Al Kawas Copyright © 2017 Zahra Seraj et al. All rights reserved. Relative Efficacy of Quercetin Compared with Benzydamine Hydrochloride in Minor Aphthae: A Prospective, Parallel, Double Blind, Active Control, Preliminary Study Mon, 13 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/7034390/ Background and Objectives. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is an inflammatory condition present since ancient era wherein numerous treatment modalities have been tried. But complete eradication of the disease has not been possible and hence newer agents are being introduced. One such agent is a flavonoid named quercetin with proven antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and ulcer healing properties. Methods. 40 patients with minor aphthous ulcers were divided equally into two groups: A and B. Group A patients were advised to apply quercetin gel and Group B patients were advised to take benzydamine hydrochloride mouth wash. Clinical evaluation including assessment of ulcer size and pain score and questionnaire about the acceptability of both the drugs in terms of taste and ease of application was carried out. Each criterion was compared and statistically analyzed. Results. There was statistically significant reduction in the mean score of pain sensation and ulcer area in both the groups. Quercetin showed statistically highly significant ulcer size reduction as compared to benzydamine hydrochloride. Conclusion. From the present study, it is evident that quercetin is safe, well tolerated, and effective therapy which promotes complete ulcer healing in a short duration of time. Maitreyi Pandya, Anupama N. Kalappanavar, Rajeshwari G. Annigeri, and Dhanya S. Rao Copyright © 2017 Maitreyi Pandya et al. All rights reserved. Survey of Screw-Retained versus Cement-Retained Implant Restorations in Saudi Arabia Mon, 30 Oct 2017 07:08:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/5478371/ Introduction. Implant-supported prostheses are currently the standard treatment for the replacement of missing teeth and deficiencies. Implant restorations can either be screw-retained, cement-retained, or both. The implant retention system type is typically chosen during the treatment plan. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the frequency of implant restoration retention systems. Materials and Methods. A five-page questionnaire was sent to private institutes, educational institutes, and governmental hospitals that provide dental services. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results. Prior to distribution, the surveys were proofread and pilot-tested at the Faculty of Dentistry at Umm Al-Qura University. The surveys were mailed to three groups: private institutes, educational institutes, and governmental hospitals. In total, 120 surveys were distributed and 87 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 73%. This included thirty-six surveys (41.4%) from private institutes, twenty-two surveys (25.3%) from educational institutes, and twenty-nine surveys (33.3%) from governmental hospitals. Conclusions. In general, Astra was cited as the most widely used implant system. In addition, cement-retained restorations were more frequently used than screw-retained restorations. However, dental implant failure was more frequently associated with cement-retained restorations than with screw-retained restorations. Alaa Makke, Abdulwahed Homsi, Montaha Guzaiz, and Abdulrahman Almalki Copyright © 2017 Alaa Makke et al. All rights reserved. A Competition between Care Teams Improved Recording of Diagnoses in Primary Dental Care: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study Thu, 26 Oct 2017 08:05:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/3080957/ Introduction. A playful competition was launched in a primary dental health care system to improve the recording of diagnoses into an electronic patient chart system and to study what diagnoses were used in primary dental care. Methods. This was a longitudinal follow-up study with public sector primary dental care practices in a Finnish city. A one-year-lasting playful competition between the dental care teams was launched and the monthly percentage of dentists’ visits with recorded diagnosis before, during, and after the intervention was recorded. The assessed diagnoses were recorded with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results. Before the competition, the level of diagnosis recordings was practically zero. At the end of this intervention, about 25% of the visits had a recorded diagnosis. Two years after the competition, this percentage was 35% without any additional measures. The most frequent diagnoses were dental caries (K02, 38.6%), other diseases of hard tissues of teeth (K03, 14.8%), and diseases of pulp and periapical tissues (K04, 11.4%). Conclusions. Commitment to the idea that recording of diagnoses was beneficial improved the recording of dental diagnoses. However, the diagnoses obtained did not accurately reflect the reputed prevalence of oral diseases in the Finnish population. Jouko Kallio, Timo Kauppila, Lasse Suominen, and Anna Maria Heikkinen Copyright © 2017 Jouko Kallio et al. All rights reserved. Superfast Set, Strong and Less Degradable Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Cement Thu, 19 Oct 2017 10:19:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/3019136/ Purpose. Despite the good sealing ability and biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), its slow setting, high degradation, and weakness limit its use in surgical endodontics and high stress-bearing areas. This study aimed to develop two new liquids to control these drawbacks. They were prepared from calcium chloride, fumed silica, and hydroxyapatite or calcium phosphate and coded “H” and “P,” respectively. Methods. Portland cement, Grey ProRoot® MTA, and white ProRoot MTA were mixed with distilled water (control) or liquid “H” or “P.” The pH, setting time, degradation rate, leachant/precipitate’ composition, compressive strength, and morphology were assessed. Results. Both liquids maintained MTA’s high alkalinity and reduced the setting time by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Both liquids, H in particular, significantly reduced the degradation rate of Grey ProRoot and White ProRoot MTA®. Calcite has been identified as the main phase of the leachant or precipitate formed during the cement’s degradation. Calcium hydroxide or hydroxyapatite was also identified with Grey ProRoot MTA mixed with H liquid. These liquids also significantly increased the compressive strength with no statistical differences between them; this was associated with the production of dense, consolidated structures. Conclusions. The modified MTA could be used in surgical endodontics and high stress-bearing areas. Abdullah Alqedairi, Carlos A. Muñoz-Viveros, Eugene A. Pantera Jr., Marc Campillo-Funollet, Hussam Alfawaz, Ensanya Ali Abou Neel, and Tariq S. Abuhaimed Copyright © 2017 Abdullah Alqedairi et al. All rights reserved. Antibacterial Effects of Natural Herbal Extracts on Streptococcus mutans: Can They Be Potential Additives in Dentifrices? Thu, 19 Oct 2017 08:19:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/4921614/ Background. Many plants or herbs exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. They have no side effects and presumably act against and modulate the factors that are crucial for microbial survival or their activity. Streptococcus mutans is a pioneer bacteria implicated in dental caries. This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of garlic bulbs, pudina leaves, and mango and eucalyptus twig extracts on Streptococcus mutans by evaluating their zone of inhibition and determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Methods. Microbiological assay (well diffusion method) to determine zone of inhibition against pure forms of Streptococcus mutans was performed. The antibacterial effects of methanolic extracts of mango twigs, eucalyptus twigs, pudina leaves, and garlic bulbs were studied. Test compounds were further evaluated for their MIC. Results. Extracts derived from mango and eucalyptus twigs showed significant antibacterial effects at test concentrations. Pudina and garlic extracts did not show any significant antibacterial effects at similar concentrations. Upon further evaluation of the 2 positive compounds for their MIC, mango twigs demonstrated more antimicrobial potential than eucalyptus twigs at a lower concentration. Conclusion. Our observations indicated that the mango twig extracts possess higher antibacterial effects against Streptococcus mutans than other compounds at specific test concentration. Spoorthi Banavar Ravi, Sudarshini Nirupad, Prashanthi Chippagiri, and Rohit Pandurangappa Copyright © 2017 Spoorthi Banavar Ravi et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Bone Defects Using CBCT Exam in an Italian Population Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/7523848/ Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo incidence and the location of fenestrations in a young Italian population by using CBCT. Materials and Methods. Fifty patients who had previously performed CBCT for planning third molar extraction or orthodontic therapy were selected for the study. No previous dental treatment had been performed on these patients. Overall, 1,395 teeth were evaluated. Root fenestrations were identified according to the definition of Davies and the American Association of Endodontists. Data was collected and statistically analyzed. Results. Fenestrations were observed in 159 teeth out of 1,395 (11% of teeth). In the lower jaw, we found 68 fenestrations (5%) and 91 in the maxilla (6,5%). Incisors were the teeth with the highest incidence of fenestrations. Conclusion. The relative common finding (11%) of fenestration supports the need for CBCT exams before any surgical/implant treatment to avoid complications related to the initial presence of fenestrations. CBCT was found to be an effective and convenient tool for diagnosing fenestration. Gianluca Gambarini, Gabriele Miccoli, Gianfranco Gaimari, Deborah Pompei, Andrea Pilloni, Lucila Piasecki, Dina Al-Sudani, Dario Di Nardo, and Luca Testarelli Copyright © 2017 Gianluca Gambarini et al. All rights reserved. Forensic Age Estimation of Chinese Malaysian Adults by Evaluating Occlusal Tooth Wear Using Modified Kim’s Index Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/4265753/ Background and Objective. Evaluation of dental attrition is an easy and relatively accurate approach to estimating the age of an adult either ante- or postmortem for some specific population. Dental attrition represents a progressive physiological age change that can be measured using variety of indices to aid as an adjunct in forensic age estimation. Some of the previously proposed indices have their own practical limitations. This paper focuses on using modified Kim’s criteria to score dental attrition to estimate the age of Chinese Malaysian adults and validate it. Methodology. Tooth wear was evaluated on 190 dental models of Chinese Malaysian adults (age range: 20–60 years) using modified Kim’s index to custom-derive a population specific linear equation. The same equation was validated further on new 60 dental casts. Results and Conclusion. Regression analysis revealed good correlation between age and teeth wear and lower standard error of estimate. Test of regression on a test sample ( pairs, age range: 20–60 years) showed insignificant difference between predicted versus the actual age with statistically acceptable mean absolute difference. These data suggest that modified Kim’s index can be used effectively in forensic age estimation. Chai Kit Lu, Margaret Chia Soo Yee, Spoorthi Banavar Ravi, and Rohit Pandurangappa Copyright © 2017 Chai Kit Lu et al. All rights reserved. Validity of Digital Imaging of Fiber-Optic Transillumination in Caries Detection on Proximal Tooth Surfaces Sun, 01 Oct 2017 08:31:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/8289636/ Objective. The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV) and bitewing (BW) radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods. Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars () of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. Results. DIFOTI detected more initial and manifested caries lesions compared with CV and BW. Of the analyzed tooth surfaces, 69.8% were classified as sound by DIFOTI, 80.3% by BW, and 91.6% by CV. Initial caries lesions were found in 21.2% of the surfaces by DIFOTI, in 14.1% by BW, and in 6.2% by CV, whereas the proportions for manifested dental caries lesions were 9.0%, 5.6%, and 2.2%, respectively. The interexaminer agreement regarding the DIFOTI findings between an experienced clinician and a fifth-year dental student was high: for initial and for manifested caries lesions. Conclusions. The noninvasive DIFOTI method seems to offer a potential tool for everyday clinical practice. In clinical use, DIFOTI finds well even initial caries lesions on proximal surfaces, thus providing an instrument for detecting lesions potential for arresting as well as for monitoring the outcome after preventive measures. Marja-Liisa Laitala, Liina Piipari, Noora Sämpi, Maria Korhonen, Paula Pesonen, Tiina Joensuu, and Vuokko Anttonen Copyright © 2017 Marja-Liisa Laitala et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Orthognathic Surgery on Quality of Life in Patients with Dentofacial Deformities Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/4103905/ The aim of this investigation was to determine the impact of orthognathic surgery on quality of life in patients with dentofacial deformities at immediate presurgery and at 3-week, 3-month, and 6-month intervals following the surgery. Subjects included forty-three 18–40-year-old Iranian orthognathic patients who were referred to private offices in Isfahan. Data collection was performed using the 22-item Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ). Participants completed the questionnaire prior to surgery and 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after it. Differences and correlations were calculated by the two-tailed -test, ANOVA with Repeated Measure test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient. The results showed significant reduction returned to baseline in OQLQ mean scores and aesthetic, awareness, and social subdomains in all 3 intervals after surgery. However oral function domain showed an increase at and then a decrease at next intervals. Maximum and minimum effect size were observed in aesthetic (ES = 0.7) and oral function (ES = 0.3) domain, respectively. Based on the finding of this study, in 6-month interval after surgery, orthognathic surgery causes significant improvements in quality of life in patients with dentofacial deformities as assessed in emotional, psychological, oral function, and social domains and maximum changes occurred in emotional domain. Faezeh Eslamipour, Arash Najimi, Azade Tadayonfard, and Zeinab Azamian Copyright © 2017 Faezeh Eslamipour et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Elementary School Teachers’ Level of Knowledge and Attitude regarding Traumatic Dental Injuries in the United Arab Emirates Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/1025324/ Introduction. In this cross-sectional study, the level of knowledge and attitude of elementary school teachers regarding traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to 330 elementary school teachers in 30 randomly selected schools in the Emirates of Sharjah and Dubai. The questionnaire collected information on participants’ demographic characteristics, first aid training, and attitude about emergency management of TDI. Results. 292 teachers (88%) completed the questionnaires; of these, 95% were females, and 50% of the participants had first aid training. Knowledge about tooth avulsion was inadequate, and first aid training was not associated with correct responses to management of avulsed teeth . A significantly higher percentage of younger teachers expressed the need for future education on TDI management. A significantly higher percentage of participants who had an educational position (95%) indicated that they did not have enough knowledge regarding TDI compared to physical education teachers (79%) and administrators (87%) . Conclusions. Elementary school teachers in the UAE have a low level of knowledge regarding the management of dental trauma. Educational programs that address TDI are needed and could improve the elementary school teachers’ level of knowledge in emergency management of TDI. Manal A. Awad, Eman AlHammadi, Mariam Malalla, Zainab Maklai, Aisha Tariq, Badria Al-Ali, Alaa Al Jameel, and Hisham El Batawi Copyright © 2017 Manal A. Awad et al. All rights reserved. Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bovine Cortical Bone: Its Potential for Guided Bone Regeneration Membrane Tue, 29 Aug 2017 09:02:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/5149675/ Background. Bovine pericardium collagen membrane (BPCM) had been widely used in guided bone regeneration (GBR) whose manufacturing process usually required chemical cross-linking to prolong its biodegradation. However, cross-linking of collagen fibrils was associated with poorer tissue integration and delayed vascular invasion. Objective. This study evaluated the potential of bovine cortical bone collagen membrane for GBR by evaluating its antigenicity potential, cytotoxicity, immune and tissue response, and biodegradation behaviors. Material and Methods. Antigenicity potential of demineralized freeze-dried bovine cortical bone membrane (DFDBCBM) was done with histology-based anticellularity evaluation, while cytotoxicity was analyzed using MTT Assay. Evaluation of immune response, tissue response, and biodegradation was done by randomly implanting DFDBCBM and BPCM in rat’s subcutaneous dorsum. Samples were collected at 2, 5, and 7 days and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for biocompatibility and tissue response-biodegradation study, respectively. Result. DFDBCBM, histologically, showed no retained cells; however, it showed some level of in vitro cytotoxicity. In vivo study exhibited increased immune response to DFDBCBM in early healing phase; however, normal tissue response and degradation rate were observed up to 4 weeks after DFDBCBM implantation. Conclusion. Demineralized freeze-dried bovine cortical bone membrane showed potential for clinical application; however, it needs to be optimized in its biocompatibility to fulfill all requirements for GBR membrane. David B. Kamadjaja, Achmad Harijadi, Pratiwi Soesilawati, Eny Wahyuni, Nurul Maulidah, Akhsanal Fauzi, Fika Rah Ayu, Roberto Simanjuntak, R. Soesanto, Djodi Asmara, Andra Rizqiawan, Peter Agus, and Coen Pramono Copyright © 2017 David B. Kamadjaja et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Approach to Determine the Prevalence of Type of Soft Palate Using Digital Intraoral Impression Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/3268064/ Aim. To determine the prevalence of type of soft palate in targeted population. Materials and Methods. Using computer technology in dentistry, intraoral digital scanner, and 3D analysis software tool, study was conducted. 100 patients selected from the outpatient clinics were divided into two groups based on the ages of 20–40 years and 41–60 years with equal ratio of males and females. Each selected patient’s maxillary arch was scanned with intraoral scanner; images so obtained were sectioned in anteroposterior cross section and with the 3D analysis software; the angulation between hard and soft palate was determined. Results. The prevalence of type II soft palate (angulation between hard and soft palate is between 10 and 45 degrees) was highest, 60% in group 1 and 44% in group 2. The difference between genders was statistically significant with value in both the groups, although females had higher angulation compared to the males in all classes of both groups. Conclusions. In targeted population of Aseer Province, Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of type II soft palate was more common, with higher soft palate angulation among females. The advanced age had no effect in the type of soft palate in the region. Saurabh Chaturvedi, Mohamed Khaled Addas, Abdullah Saad Ali Al Humaidi, Abdulrazaq Mohammed Al Qahtani, and Mubarak Daghash Al Qahtani Copyright © 2017 Saurabh Chaturvedi et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Chemical Modification of Dental Enamel Submitted to 35% Hydrogen Peroxide “In-Office” Whitening, with or without Calcium Mon, 28 Aug 2017 06:36:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/4646789/ Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in calcium and phosphorus content in dental enamel when subjected to “in-office” whitening for an extended time by using a 35% hydrogen peroxide solution, with and without calcium. Materials and Methods. 10 human teeth, from which the roots had been removed, were embedded in epoxy resin, and their surfaces were smoothed. The specimens were divided into two groups; in group 1, a whitening solution without calcium was used, while in group 2, the solution included calcium. Each specimen was evaluated at 6 different points before the bleaching treatment, and these points were reassessed after each session. A total of five sessions were carried out. Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were measured by using the technique of X-ray fluorescence. Results. After performing a statistical analysis, it was found that there was no statistically significant loss of calcium and phosphorus during the whitening treatment, and the groups showed no statistical differences. Conclusion. Excessive use of hydrogen peroxide, with or without calcium, causes no loss of calcium and phosphorus. Rudá França Moreira, Fábio Pinheiro Santos, Estevão Antero Santos, Ramon Silva dos Santos, Marcelino José dos Anjos, and Mauro Sayão de Miranda Copyright © 2017 Rudá França Moreira et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Sweet Taste Perception on Dietary Intake in Relation to Dental Caries and BMI in Saudi Arabian Schoolchildren Mon, 21 Aug 2017 06:29:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/4262053/ Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sweet taste perception on dietary habits in Saudi schoolchildren. In addition, the relationship between dietary habits and both caries and BMI was studied. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study comprising 225 schoolchildren aged 13–15 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The consumption frequency of certain food items was analysed from a beverage and snack questionnaire and a three-day estimated dietary record was obtained. The sweet taste perception level was determined as sweet taste threshold (TT) and sweet taste preference (TP). Children were grouped into low, medium, and high, according to their sweet taste perception level. ICDAS and DMFS indices were used for caries registration and anthropometric measurements using BMI were collected. Results. Sweet taste perception was found to be negatively correlated to the number of main meals and positively correlated to both snack and sweet intake occasions. Statistically significant differences were found between the TT and TP groups with regard to the number of main meals and sweet intake (). No significant correlation between the dietary variables and caries or BMI was found. Conclusions. The dietary habits and sweet intake were found to be influenced by the sweet taste perception level, while the relation between the dietary habits and the caries and BMI was found insignificant. Heba Ashi, Guglielmo Campus, Heléne Bertéus Forslund, Waleed Hafiz, Neveen Ahmed, and Peter Lingström Copyright © 2017 Heba Ashi et al. All rights reserved. Influence of the Smile Line on Smile Attractiveness in Short and Long Face Individuals Tue, 08 Aug 2017 08:10:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/2637148/ Objectives. The study assessed the impact of facial height on attractiveness of smile, in association with the maxillary gingival display. This research was performed by dental professionals and laypersons. Materials and Methods. Frontal extraoral photographs were captured for both short and long faces. The photographs were modified using software for image-processing and three rater groups (orthodontists, dentists, and laypersons) evaluated the smile attractiveness, with 30 subjects in each group. Differences in ratings of the different smiles among the different experimental groups were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The Mann–Whitney U test was performed for pairwise comparisons between the experimental groups. Results. Dentists and laypeople were most likely to agree. For the short face, laypeople and dentists both rated the +2 mm gingival display smile as the most attractive smile whilst orthodontists ranked the 0 mm gingival display smile as the most attractive smile. For the long face, laypeople and dentists ranked the 0 mm gingival display smile as the most attractive smile, whilst orthodontists ranked the +2 mm gingival display as the most attractive. Conclusion. Smile line of both short and long face subjects was found to influence the smile attractiveness rating by the three rater groups. Amjad Al Taki, Thar Hayder Mohammed, and Ahmad Mohammad Hamdan Copyright © 2017 Amjad Al Taki et al. All rights reserved. An Analysis of Patient Perceptions and Expectations to Dental Implants: Is There a Significant Effect on Long-Term Satisfaction Levels? Tue, 08 Aug 2017 06:30:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/8230618/ Here we present an analysis of patient perceptions and expectations to dental implant placement and their prosthetic reconstruction, to then consider whether they have an effect on long-term satisfaction levels. A Post-Treatment Completion Questionnaire was designed to analyse whether patient satisfaction is influenced by age and/or gender; has an effect on patient-reported self-confidence levels; contributes to increased levels of oral hygiene; provides further insight into the average pain levels during and after the surgical intervention; or influences further acceptance of dental implant surgery. And then whether relationships exist between any of these factors. 182 consecutive patients completed the survey: 68 males and 114 females (age mean 64.68 years ± 11.23 SD); the average number of months since treatment completion was 37.4 (males) and 62.6 (females). There is a significant relationship between comfort rating and “how well informed” the patient was (). A significantly positive relationship exists between “considering dental implants in the future” and “overall experience” (). A significantly positive relationship exists between “overall satisfaction with appearance” and “satisfaction with comfort” (). A significant relationship exists between “overall satisfaction with appearance,” “satisfaction with comfort,” and “overall satisfaction with experience” (). The results amplify the need to transmit logical, truthful information to patients when dental implant treatment is being considered. The “fully informed” patient will have realistic expectations that lead to high degrees of satisfaction. Shane J. J. McCrea Copyright © 2017 Shane J. J. McCrea. All rights reserved. Morse Taper Connection Implants Placed in Grafted Sinuses in 65 Patients: A Retrospective Clinical Study with 10 Years of Follow-Up Mon, 07 Aug 2017 09:07:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/4573037/ Purpose. To investigate the 10-year survival and complication rates of Morse taper connection implants (MTCIs) placed in grafted sinuses. Methods. This study reports on patients treated with maxillary sinus augmentation (with the lateral window technique (LWT) or the transalveolar osteotomy technique (TOT)) and installed with MTCIs supporting fixed restorations (single crowns (SCs) and fixed partial dentures (FPDs)), in two dental clinics. The outcomes of the study were the 10-year implant survival and complication rates. Results. Sixty-five patients (30 males and 35 females) with a mean age of 62.7 (±10.2) years were installed with 142 MTCIs: 79 fixtures were inserted with the LWT and 63 were placed with the TOT. After ten years, five implants failed, for an overall survival rate of 96.5%. Three implants failed in the LWT group, for a survival rate of 96.3%; two implants failed in the TOT group, for a survival rate of 96.9%. The 10-year incidence of biologic complications was 11.9%. Prosthetic complications were all technical in nature and amounted to 7.6%. Conclusions. MTCIs seem to represent a successful procedure for the prosthetic restoration of the grafted posterior maxilla, in the long term. This study was registered in the ISRCTN registry with number ISRCTN30772506. Francesco Mangano, Renata Bakaj, Irene Frezzato, Alberto Frezzato, Sergio Montini, and Carlo Mangano Copyright © 2017 Francesco Mangano et al. All rights reserved. Analyzing Menton Deviation in Posteroanterior Cephalogram in Early Detection of Temporomandibular Disorder Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/5604068/ Introduction. Some clinicians believed that mandibular deviation leads to facial asymmetry and it also had a correlation with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Posteroanterior (PA) cephalogram was widely reported as a regular record in treating facial asymmetry and craniofacial anomalies. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of menton deviation in PA cephalogram with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) symptoms. Materials and Methods. TMJ function was initially screened based on TMD-DI questionnaire. PA cephalogram of volunteer subjects with TMDs () and without TMDs () with mean age of years was taken. The menton deviation was measured by the distance (mm) from menton point to midsagittal reference (MSR) horizontally, using software digitized measurement, and categorized as asymmetric if the value is greater than 3 mm. The prevalence and difference of menton deviation in both groups were evaluated by unpaired -test. Result. The prevalence of symmetry group showed that 65.9% had no TMDs with mean of 1,815 ± 0,71 mm; in contrast, the prevalence of asymmetry group showed that 95.5% reported TMDs with mean of 3,159 ± 1,053 mm. There was a significant difference of menton deviation to TMDs () in subjects with and without TMDs. Conclusion. There was a significant relationship of menton deviation in PA cephalogram with TMDs based on TMD-DI index. Trelia Boel, Ervina Sofyanti, and Erliera Sufarnap Copyright © 2017 Trelia Boel et al. All rights reserved. The Ball Welding Bar: A New Solution for the Immediate Loading of Screw-Retained, Mandibular Fixed Full Arch Prostheses Tue, 01 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/2679085/ Purpose. To present a new intraoral welding technique, which can be used to manufacture screw-retained, mandibular fixed full-arch prostheses. Methods. Over a 4-year period, all patients with complete mandibular edentulism or irreparably compromised mandibular dentition, who will restore the masticatory function with a fixed mandibular prosthesis, were considered for inclusion in this study. The “Ball Welding Bar” (BWB) technique is characterised by smooth prosthetic cylinders, interconnected by means of titanium bars which are adjustable in terms of distance from ball terminals and are inserted in the rotating rings of the cylinders. All the components are welded and self-posing. Results. Forty-two patients (18 males; 24 females; mean age years) were enrolled and 210 fixtures were inserted to support 42 mandibular screw-retained, fixed full-arch prostheses. After two years of loading, 2 fixtures were lost, for an implant survival rate of 97.7%. Five implants suffered from peri-implant mucositis and 3 implants for peri-implantitis. Three of the prostheses (3/42) required repair for fracture (7.1%): the prosthetic success was 92.9%. Conclusions. The BWB technique seems to represent a reliable technique for the fabrication of screw-retained mandibular fixed full-arch prostheses. This study was registered in the ISRCTN register with number ISRCTN71229338. Danilo Bacchiocchi and Andrea Guida Copyright © 2017 Danilo Bacchiocchi and Andrea Guida. All rights reserved. Missing Teeth and Prosthetic Treatment in Patients Treated at College of Dentistry, University of Dammam Sun, 30 Jul 2017 07:51:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/7593540/ The percentage of completely and partially edentulous patients and their prosthetic treatment at the Department of Substitutive Dental Sciences (SDS), College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, were investigated. Panoramic radiographs and medical records of adult patients (, mean age 45.9 years, and range 25–96 years) treated in 2011–2014 were examined. 6% of the patients were completely edentulous, 8% had single jaw edentulousness, and 74% were partially edentulous. Edentulousness was significantly correlated with age and the number of missing teeth was significantly higher among males (). Diabetes was significantly associated with complete edentulousness, single edentulous jaw ( value 0.015), and partial edentulousness ( value 0.023). Kennedy class III was the most frequent class of partial edentulousness in single and/or both jaws (). Patients having class I and/or class II were treated most often with removable partial dentures (RPD) (), while patients having class III were treated with fixed partial dentures (FPD). It was found that complete edentulousness increases in older age and the number of missing teeth was significantly higher among males. Kennedy class III was most common in both upper and lower jaw and was treated more often with FPD than with RPD. Shaimaa M. Fouda, Fahad A. Al-Harbi, Soban Q. Khan, Jorma I. Virtanen, and Aune Raustia Copyright © 2017 Shaimaa M. Fouda et al. All rights reserved. How Intraday Index Changes Influence Periodontal Assessment: A Preliminary Study Sun, 30 Jul 2017 07:17:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/7912158/ It is reputed that periodontal indices remain unchanged over a 24-hour period, with great clinical significance. This preliminary study analyzes daily index changes. In 56 selected patients, full-mouth plaque score (FMPS), full-mouth bleeding score (FMBS), periodontal screening and recording (PSR) indices, and periodontal risk assessment (PRA) were recorded at baseline and three times per day (check-I: 08.30, check-II: 11.30, and check-III: 14.30), after appropriate cause-related therapy. Correlation between variables was statistically analyzed by Stata. All periodontal indices improved at the examination phase. Statistical differences were detected for FMPS comparing all thrice daily checks. Statistical differences were detected for FMBS and PRA comparing check-III with check-I and check-II. PSR showed no significant changes. The worst baseline indices produced the widest daily fluctuation at the examination phase. Significant variation of indices is directly related to clinical severity of periodontal conditions at baseline. Patients affected by severe periodontal disease may show significantly greater index changes. As indices are routinely recorded only once per day, the index daily variation has clinical significance. This greatly affects therapeutic strategy as correct periodontal assessment requires multiple evaluations at standardized times, particularly when baseline conditions are severe. Carlo Bertoldi, Andrea Forabosco, Michele Lalla, Luigi Generali, Davide Zaffe, and Pierpaolo Cortellini Copyright © 2017 Carlo Bertoldi et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis of Oral Hairy Leukoplakia: The Importance of EBV In Situ Hybridization Mon, 17 Jul 2017 07:18:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/3457479/ Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which has been related to HIV infection. In situ hybridization (ISH) is the gold-standard diagnosis of OHL, but some authors believe in the possibility of performing the diagnosis based on clinical basis. The aim of this study is diagnose incipient lesions of OHL by EBV ISH of HIV-infected patients and the possible correlations with clinical characteristics of the patients. Ninety-four patients were examined and those presenting with clinical lesions compatible to OHL were submitted to biopsy prior to EBV ISH. Twenty-eight patients had lesions clinically compatible to the diagnosis of OHL, but only 20 lesions were confirmed by EBV ISH. The patients with OHL had a mean age of 41.9 years and were HIV-infected for 11.2 years, on average, including CD4 count of 504.7 cells/mm3 and log10 viral load = 1.1. Among the quantitative variables, there was a statistically significant correlation with age only (). In conclusion, the presence of OHL in patients with HIV/AIDS results in changes in the epidemiological characteristics of the disease, and this fact allied with subtle clinical-morphological features makes clinical diagnosis very difficult. Therefore, EBV ISH is important for a definitive diagnosis of OHL. Luana L. Martins, José Henrique F. Rosseto, Natália Silva Andrade, Juliana Bertoldi Franco, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, and Karem L. Ortega Copyright © 2017 Luana L. Martins et al. All rights reserved. Specific Central Nervous System Medications Are Associated with Temporomandibular Joint Symptoms Sun, 16 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/1026834/ Aims. There is evidence of association between bruxism and the increasingly common central nervous system stimulants prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) often prescribed for depression or anxiety. However, the evidence is not clear on whether these medications inducing bruxism are directly associated with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). The aim of this work is to evaluate whether these medications are associated with TMD symptoms. Methods. Medical history and participant data were obtained for 469 patients from the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine, Dental Registry and DNA Repository, dating back to 2006. The chi-square test was used to determine any statistically significant associations. Results. There were no statistically significant associations between ADHD stimulant medications or SSRIs and reported TMD symptoms. However, there were significant differences seen between specific brands of medications and reported TMD symptoms. Individuals prescribed methylphenidate (Concerta) were less likely to report temporomandibular joint discomfort (). Conversely, individuals prescribed citalopram (Celexa) were more likely to report temporomandibular joint discomfort (). Conclusion. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction may be influenced by the use of certain medications prescribed for depression or attention deficit hyperactive disorder. John K. Drisdale III, Monica G. Thornhill, and Alexandre R. Vieira Copyright © 2017 John K. Drisdale III et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Anatomical Customization of the Fiber Post on the Bond Strength of a Self-Adhesive Resin Cement Thu, 13 Jul 2017 09:17:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/5010712/ Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate, by means of the push-out test, the effect of the anatomical customization of the fiber post on the bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement. Methods. Twelve endodontically treated, human, upper central incisors were randomly divided into two groups (): control (glass fiber posts cemented with Relyx® U200) and customized (glass fiber posts anatomically customized with translucent composite resin cemented with Relyx U200). The roots were sectioned into three slices, cervical, middle, and apical, and photographed with a digital camera attached to a stereomicroscopic loupe. The images were analyzed by software, for evaluation of the cement line. The slices were subsequently submitted to the push-out test until the post had completely extruded, and the fracture mode was analyzed with a stereomicroscopic loupe. Results. The results showed significant differences between the groups in the different root thirds in relation to the area occupied by air bubbles (). Bond strength, when all the thirds are considered, was 8.77 ± 4.89 MPa for the control group and 16.96 ± 4.85 MPa for the customized group. Conclusion. The customized group showed greater bond resistance than the control group and a more uniform cement layer. Adricyla Teixeira Rocha, Leticia Machado Gonçalves, Ana Júlia de Carvalho Vasconcelos, Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho, Ceci Nunes Carvalho, and Rudys Rodolfo De Jesus Tavarez Copyright © 2017 Adricyla Teixeira Rocha et al. All rights reserved. Incidence of Tooth Loss in Adults: A 4-Year Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study Wed, 12 Jul 2017 08:13:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/6074703/ Objective. To verify the incidence of tooth loss in extended age group of adults in 4 years. Materials and Methods. The prospective cohort study assessed adults (20–64 years old) between 2011 and 2015, from Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The dependent variable was cumulative incidence of tooth loss, assessed by difference between missing teeth (M) of decayed, missing, and filled tooth index (DMFT) in 2011 and 2015. Participants were stratified into young (20–44 years old) and older (45–64 years old) adults. Mann–Whitney U test () was used to compare the means of incidence of tooth loss between age groups. Results. After four years, 57.7% () of adults were followed up and the mean incidence of tooth loss was 0.91 (SD = 1.65); among these, 51 adults (35.7%) who lost their teeth showed mean tooth loss of 2.55 (SD = 1.86). In older adults, incidence of tooth loss was higher (), but no difference between age groups was found when only adults with incidence of tooth loss were assessed (). Conclusion. There was higher incidence of tooth loss in older adults after four years, however, without difference between age groups when only those who lost teeth were evaluated. Manoelito Ferreira Silva-Junior, Marília Jesus Batista, and Maria da Luz Rosário de Sousa Copyright © 2017 Manoelito Ferreira Silva-Junior et al. All rights reserved. Estimation of Antioxidant Levels in Saliva and Serum of Chronic Periodontitis Patients with and without Ischemic Heart Disease Tue, 11 Jul 2017 10:22:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/1965697/ Objective. To investigate whether there is a relationship between periodontitis and ischemic heart disease by estimation of total antioxidant status in saliva and serum. Materials and Methods. A total of 80 samples were collected and divided equally into 4 groups of healthy controls, chronic periodontitis patients, ischemic heart disease patients with periodontitis, and ischemic heart disease patients without periodontitis. Saliva and venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for levels of total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. Results. There were significant () differences in the mean serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (), superoxide dismutase (), glutathione peroxidase (), and catalase () within the 4 groups, whereas the mean salivary levels were significant only for glutathione peroxidase (). Both of these serum and salivary antioxidant levels were lower in disease groups of IHD + CP, IHD + H, and CP as compared to healthy controls, with different patterns. Conclusion. Antioxidant capacity is significantly hampered in chronic periodontitis and ischemic heart disease patients with or without periodontitis as compared to healthy controls. The salivary and serum antioxidants may not follow the same increase or decrease as a result of increased oxidant stress due to disease. Anahita Punj, Santhosh Shenoy, N. Suchetha Kumari, and Priyanka Pampani Copyright © 2017 Anahita Punj et al. All rights reserved. Peripheral Exophytic Oral Lesions: A Clinical Decision Tree Wed, 05 Jul 2017 06:59:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/9193831/ Diagnosis of peripheral oral exophytic lesions might be quite challenging. This review article aimed to introduce a decision tree for oral exophytic lesions according to their clinical features. General search engines and specialized databases including PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline Plus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Embase, and authenticated textbooks were used to find relevant topics by means of keywords such as “oral soft tissue lesion,” “oral tumor like lesion,” “oral mucosal enlargement,” and “oral exophytic lesion.” Related English-language articles published since 1988 to 2016 in both medical and dental journals were appraised. Upon compilation of data, peripheral oral exophytic lesions were categorized into two major groups according to their surface texture: smooth (mesenchymal or nonsquamous epithelium-originated) and rough (squamous epithelium-originated). Lesions with smooth surface were also categorized into three subgroups according to their general frequency: reactive hyperplastic lesions/inflammatory hyperplasia, salivary gland lesions (nonneoplastic and neoplastic), and mesenchymal lesions (benign and malignant neoplasms). In addition, lesions with rough surface were summarized in six more common lesions. In total, 29 entities were organized in the form of a decision tree in order to help clinicians establish a logical diagnosis by a stepwise progression method. Hamed Mortazavi, Yaser Safi, Maryam Baharvand, Somayeh Rahmani, and Soudeh Jafari Copyright © 2017 Hamed Mortazavi et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy and Safety of Topical Corticosteroids for Management of Oral Chronic Graft versus Host Disease Sun, 02 Jul 2017 10:01:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/1908768/ Background. Oral chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication in transplantation community, a problem that can be addressed with topical intervention. Topical corticosteroids are the first line of treatment although the choice remains challenging as none of the available treatments is supported by strong clinical evidence. Objective. This systematic review aims to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of topical corticosteroids for the management of the mucosal alterations of oral cGVHD. Data Sources. Electronic search of different databases was conducted: PubMed, Cochrane library, Grey literature, WHO, and clinical trials.gov for clinical trial registration as well as hand search in the references of relevant articles up to November 2016. Data Extraction. Extracted pieces of information were intervention, population, sample sizes, and outcomes. Data Synthesis. Six studies were included: 2 randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 3 cohort studies, and 1 pre-post clinical trial. Results. There is a limited evidence concerning clinical efficacy of topical corticosteroids. Clobetasol, dexamethasone, and budesonide were the topical corticosteroid of choice. The highest level of evidence score was given to clobetasol followed by budesonide with a lower evidence level. Conclusion. All three topical corticosteroid preparations are effective for management of oral chronic GVHD with minimal easily avoided side effects. Basma Abdelaleem Elsaadany, Eman Magdy Ahmed, and Sana Maher Hasan Aghbary Copyright © 2017 Basma Abdelaleem Elsaadany et al. All rights reserved. Cumulative Success Rate of Short and Ultrashort Implants Supporting Single Crowns in the Posterior Maxilla: A 3-Year Retrospective Study Sun, 02 Jul 2017 08:26:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/8434281/ Aim. To determine cumulative success rate (CSR) of short and ultrashort implants in the posterior maxilla restored with single crowns. Patients and Methods. We performed a retrospective study in 65 patients with 139 implants. 46 were ultrashort and 93 short. Implants were placed with a staged approach and restored with single crowns. Success rate, clinical and radiographic outcomes, and crown-to-implant ratio (CIR) were assessed after three years. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics. A log-binomial regression model where the main outcome was implant success was achieved. Coefficients and 95% confidence intervals were reported. Analyses were performed with Stata 13.2 for Windows. Results. 61.54% of patients were female and mean overall age was years old. Overall CSR was 97.1% (95% CI: 92.4–98.9): 97.9 and 95.1% for short and ultrashort, respectively ( value: 0.33). Four implants failed. Covariates were not associated with CSR ( value > 0.05). Regression model showed coefficients correlated with implant success for ultrashort implants (0.87) and most of covariates but none were statistically significant ( values > 0.05). Conclusions. Our results suggest that short and ultrashort implants may be successfully placed and restored with single crowns in the resorbed maxillary molar region. Giorgio Lombardo, Jacopo Pighi, Mauro Marincola, Giovanni Corrocher, Miguel Simancas-Pallares, and Pier Francesco Nocini Copyright © 2017 Giorgio Lombardo et al. All rights reserved.