Research Article | Open Access
Bifurcations of Traveling Wave Solutions for the Coupled Higgs Field Equation
By using the bifurcation theory of dynamical systems, we study the coupled Higgs field equation and the existence of new solitary wave solutions, and uncountably infinite many periodic wave solutions are obtained. Under different parametric conditions, various sufficient conditions to guarantee the existence of the above solutions are given. All exact explicit parametric representations of the above waves are determined.
Recently, by using an algebraic method, Hon and Fan  studied the following coupled Higgs field equation: The Higgs field equation  describes a system of conserved scalar nucleons interacting with neutral scalar mesons. Here, real constant represents a complex scalar nucleon field and a real scalar meson field. Equation (1.1) is the coupled nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation for and the coupled Higgs field equation for , . The existence of N-soliton solutions for (1.1) has been shown by the Hirota bilinear method .
It is very important to consider the bifurcation behavior for the traveling wave solutions of (1.1). In this paper, we consider (1.1) and its traveling wave solutions in the form of Substitute (1.2) into (1.1) and for reduce system (1.1) to the following system of ordinary differential equations: where “” is the derivative with respect to . Integrating second equation of (1.3) once and integrating third equation of (1.3) twice, respectively, we have where , are integral constants. Substituting (1.4) into first equation of (1.3), we have Equation (1.5) is equivalent to the two-dimensional systems as follows: with the first integral where ,,, .
System (1.6) is a 3-parameter planar dynamical system depending on the parameter group . For a fixed , we will investigate the bifurcations of phase portraits of (1.6) in the phase plane as the parameters are changed. Here we are considering a physical model where only bounded traveling waves are meaningful. So we only pay attention to the bounded solutions of (1.6).
Suppose that is a continuous solution of (1.6) for and , . Recall that (i) is called a solitary wave solution if ; (ii) is called a kink or antikink solution if . Usually, a solitary wave solution of (1.6) corresponds to a homoclinic orbit of (1.6); a kink (or antikink) wave solution (1.6) corresponds to a heteroclinic orbit (or the so-called connecting orbit) of (1.6). Similarly, a periodic orbit of (1.6) corresponds to a periodically traveling wave solution of (1.6). Thus, to investigate all possible bifurcations of solitary waves and periodic waves of (1.6), we need to find all periodic annuli and homoclinic orbits of (1.6), which depend on the system parameters. The bifurcation theory of dynamical systems (see [4–11]) plays an important role in our study.
The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we discuss bifurcations of phase portraits of (1.6), where explicit parametric conditions will be derived. In Section 3, all explicit parametric representations of bounded traveling wave solutions are given. Section 4 contains the concluding remarks.
2. Bifurcations of Phase Portraits of (1.6)
In this section, we study all possible periodic annuluses defined by the vector fields of (1.6) when the parameters are varied.
Denote that When , . We have which implies the relations in the -parameter plane
Let be the coefficient matrix of the linearized system of (2.1) at an equilibrium point . Then, we have By the theory of planar dynamical systems, we know that for an equilibrium point of a planar integrable system, if , then the equilibrium point is a saddle point; if and , then it is a center point; if and then it is a node; if and the index of the equilibrium point is 0, then it is a cusp; otherwise, it is a high-order equilibrium point.
For the function defined by (1.8), we denote that
(a) ( 𝑏 , 𝑒 ) ∈ ( 𝐼 )
(b) ( 𝑏 , 𝑒 ) ∈ ( 𝐼 𝐼 )
(a) ( 𝑏 , 𝑒 ) ∈ ( 𝐼 𝐼 𝐼 )
(b) ( 𝑏 , 𝑒 ) ∈ ( 𝐼 𝑉 )
3. Exact Explicit Parametric Representations of Traveling Wave Solutions of (1.6)
In this section, we give all exact explicit parametric representations of solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions. Denote that is the Jacobian elliptic functions with the modulus and is Legendre's incomplete elliptic integral of the third kind (see ).
(1) Suppose that , . Notice that , corresponding to defined by (1.8), and we see from (1.6) that the arch curve connects (see Figure 2(b)). The arch curve has the algebraic equation where satisfies the equation
By using the first equations of (1.6) and (3.1), we obtain the parametric representation of (1.6), a smooth solitary wave solution of valley type and a smooth solitary wave solution of peak type as follows:
Thus, (1.1) has the following solitary wave solution of valley type and a solitary wave solution of peak type as follows:
(2) Suppose that . Notice that , corresponding to , defined by (1.8), and system (1.6) has two families of periodic solutions enclosing the center and , respectively. These orbits determine uncountably infinite many periodic wave solutions of (1.1) (see Figures 3(a) and 3(b)). These orbits have the algebraic equation Integrating them along the periodic orbits, it follows that Substituting into (3.6), we have where . From (3.7), we have where .
Thus, (1.1) has the following uncountably infinite many periodic wave solutions as follows:
where , , .
In this paper, we have considered all traveling wave solutions for the coupled Higgs field equation (1.1) in its parameter space, by using the method of dynamical systems. We obtain all parametric representations for solitary wave solutions and uncountably infinite many periodic wave solutions of (1.1) in different parameter regions of the parameter space.
This research was supported by NNSF of China (11061010) and the Foundation of Guangxi Key Lab of Trusted Software.
- Y. C. Hon and E. G. Fan, “A series of exact solutions for coupled Higgs field equation and coupled Schrödinger-Boussinesq equation,” Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, vol. 71, no. 7-8, pp. 3501–3508, 2009.
- M. Tajiri, “On N-soliton solutions of coupled Higgs field equation,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 2277–2280, 1983.
- X. B. Hu, B. L. Guo, and H. W. Tam, “Homoclinic orbits for the coupled Schrödinger-Boussinesq equation and coupled higgs equation,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 189–190, 2003.
- S. N. Chow and J. K. Hale, Methods of Bifurcation Theory, vol. 251, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1982.
- J. Guckenheimer and P. Holmes, Nonlinear Oscillations, Dynamical Systems, and Bifurcations of Vector Fields, vol. 42, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1983.
- L. Perko, Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems, vol. 7, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1991.
- S. Tang and W. Huang, “Bifurcations of travelling wave solutions for the equations,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 203, no. 1, pp. 39–49, 2008.
- J. B. Li and Z. Liu, “Travelling wave solutions for a class of nonlinear dispersive equations,” Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B, vol. 23, pp. 397–418, 2002.
- J. B. Li, J. Wu, and H. Zhu, “Traveling waves for an integrable higher order KdV type wave equations,” International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 2235–2260, 2006.
- J. B. Li and G. Chen, “On a class of singular nonlinear traveling wave equations,” International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 4049–4065, 2007.
- J. B. Li and H. H. Dai, On the Study for Singular Nonlinear Wave Equations: Dynamical Approach, Science Publishing House, Beijing, China, 2007.
- P. F. Byrd and M. D. Friedman, Handbook of Elliptic Integrals for Engineers and Scientists, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1971.
Copyright © 2011 Shengqiang Tang and Shu Xia. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.