About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks
Volume 3 (2007), Issue 1, Pages 5-21
Original Article

Flexible Energy Efficient Density Control on Wireless Sensor Networks

Department of Computer Science, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, USA

Copyright © 2007 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In dense wireless sensor networks, density control is an important technique for prolonging the network's lifetime while providing sufficient sensing coverage. In this paper, we develop three new density control protocols by considering the tradeoff between energy usage and coverage. The first one, Non-Overlapping Density Control, aims at maximizing coverage while avoiding the overlap of sensing areas of active sensors. For the ideal case, a set of optimality conditions are derived to select sensors such that the sensing space is covered systematically to maximize the usage of each sensor and minimize the coverage gap. Based on theoretical optimality conditions, we develop a distributed protocol that can be efficiently implemented in large sensor networks. Next, we present a protocol called Non-Overlapping Density Control Based on Distances that does not require location information of the nodes. This protocol is more flexible and easier to implement than existing location-based methods. Finally, we present a new range-adjustable protocol called Non-Overlapping Density Control for Adjustable Sensing Ranges. It allows heterogenous sensing ranges for different sensors to save energy consumption. Extensive simulation shows promising results of the new protocols.