Figure 1: The eStadium testbed at Purdue’s Ross Ade stadium includes (1) twelve 802.11 APs with directional antennas that provide coverage, shaded in orange, of the outdoor seating area (2) ten APs with omni antennas that cover the indoor seating areas, (3) a Vivato network that serves the parking area north of the stadium, and (4) clusters of sensors in the concourse area of the stadium. Interfering APs are generally WiFi networks operating in the vicinity of the stadium.