Figure 1: An illustration of wormhole detection results by different approaches. Gray areas denote the impact range of wormhole antennas. Black points in the gray areas denote real wormhole nodes that are directly affected by wormhole antennas. Circles denote detected wormhole nodes by respective detection approaches. (a) The original sensor network. 400 nodes are deployed over a square region. The average node degree is 7.5. Edges connecting wormhole nodes at different ends are omitted. (b) Detection results of MDS-VOW. Most of wormhole nodes are not detected. (c) Detection results of LCT. A number of false positives are produced. (d) Detection result of our approach.