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International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 460754, 11 pages
Research Article

Energy-Efficient Fire Monitoring over Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea
2Department of Computer Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju-si, Jeju 690-756, Republic of Korea

Received 12 November 2011; Accepted 11 January 2012

Academic Editor: Tai Hoon Kim

Copyright © 2012 Young-guk Ha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Uncontrolled fires occurring in wild areas cause significant damage to natural and human resources. Many countries are looking for ways to fight forest fires at an early stage using sensor networks, by integrating IT technologies. Studies in the fire-related sensor network field are broadly classified into efficient processing of fire data on sensor nodes and energy efficiency during communications among wireless sensor nodes in case of fire. Most studies of sensor network energy efficiency so far mainly focus on extending the connectivity of the entire network and minimizing isolated nodes by applying power evenly to each sensor node through efficient cluster-based routing. This paper proposes an energy-efficient fire monitoring protocol over cluster-based sensor networks. The proposed protocol dynamically creates and reorganizes the sensor network cluster hierarchy according to the direction of fire propagation over the sensor network clusters. This paper also presents experimental results to show that the proposed protocol is more energy efficient than fire monitoring with existing cluster-based sensor network protocols.