Table 8: Hardware parameters of the energy consumption model together with values used for evaluation.

Parameter Description Value

𝑄 Available energy 1800 mAh
𝐼 m c u a c t i v e Current consumption when μC is active 2 mA
𝐼 t x Current consumption when sending and receiving20 mA
𝐼 r x 22 mA
𝐼 s l e e p Current consumption when the node sleeps 0.01 mA
𝜗 Transceiver data rate 250 kbps
𝐸 s e l f d i s c h a r g e Daily self-discharge rate of batteries 0.74 mAh
𝐸 s t a r t u p Energy needed to power the transceiver up and to power it down7.2 nAh
𝐸 s h u t d o w n 4.2 nAh
𝐸 t x r x s w i t c h Energy needed to change the transceiver mode from sending to receiving 4 nAh
𝛿 Relative clock drift between two nodes when MADC (moving average drift compensation) is applied 2.18 ppm
𝜆 p r e a m b l e Preamble length 4 bytes
𝜆 S F D The length of SFD (start of frame delimiter) field 1 byte