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International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 785984, 19 pages
Research Article

Human-Mobility-Based Sensor Context-Aware Routing Protocol for Delay-Tolerant Data Gathering in Multi-Sink Cell-Phone-Based Sensor Networks

Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India

Received 17 February 2012; Revised 20 June 2012; Accepted 25 July 2012

Academic Editor: Sherali Zeadally

Copyright © 2012 M. B. Shah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Ubiquitous use of cell phones encourages development of novel applications with sensors embedded in cell phones. The collection of information generated by these devices is a challenging task considering volatile topologies and energy-based scarce resources. Further, the data delivery to the sink is delay tolerant. Mobility of cell phones is opportunistically exploited for forwarding sensor generated data towards the sink. Human mobility model shows truncated power law distribution of flight length, pause time, and intercontact time. The power law behavior of inter-contact time often discourages routing of data using naive forwarding schemes. This work exploits the flight length and the pause time distributions of human mobility to design a better and efficient routing strategy. We propose a Human-Mobility-based Sensor Context-Aware Routing protocol (HMSCAR), which exploits human mobility patterns to smartly forward data towards the sink basically comprised of wi-fi hot spots or cellular base stations. The simulation results show that HMSCAR significantly outperforms the SCAR, SFR, and GRAD-MOB on the aspects of delivery ratio and time delay. A multi-sink scenario and single-copy replication scheme is assumed.