Schematic diagram of potential mechanism of glucose dysregulation/diabetes pathogenesis, secondary to sleep loss, sleep apnea, and circadian misalignment. The three main sleep disorders are listed at the top. Arrows point to possible pathophysiological alteration the disorders may induce. Some of the pathways are common to all the disorders and are listed together, that is, sympathetic drive, inflammation, and alteration of HPA axis. Sleep loss may in addition lead to changes like hormonal imbalance and reduced activity (listed on the box to the right of the diagram). Similarly circadian alteration may also cause insulin resistance and hormonal imbalance (shown in the box to the left). All these pathophysiological alterations eventually may lead to type II diabetes which is shown in the center. SWD: Shift work disorder.
Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.