Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2012, Article ID 109797, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/109797
Clinical Study

Role of Surrogate Markers of Atherosclerosis in Clinical and Subclinical Thyroidism

1Department of Internal Medicine, Kahramanmaras University, 46000 Kahramanmaras, Turkey
2Department of Internal Medicine, Malatya Hekimhan State Hospital, 44400 Malatya, Turkey
3Division of Nephrology, Yozgat State Hospital, 66000 Yozgat, Turkey
4Department of Radiology, Kahramanmaras University, 46000 Kahramanmaras, Turkey

Received 29 July 2011; Accepted 30 November 2011

Academic Editor: Dariush Elahi

Copyright © 2012 Mehmet Gunduz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. Rodondi, A. B. Newman, E. Vittinghoff et al., “Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of heart failure, other cardiovascular events, and death,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 165, no. 21, pp. 2460–2466, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. L. Vanhaelst, P. Neve, P. Chailly, and P. A. Bastenie, “Coronary-artery disease in hypothyroidism. Observations in clinical myxoedema,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 7520, pp. 800–802, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Cini, A. Carpi, J. Mechanick et al., “Thyroid hormones and the cardiovascular system: pathophysiology and interventions,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 742–753, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  4. T. Ichiki, “Thyroid hormone and atherosclerosis,” Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 52, no. 3-4, pp. 151–156, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. V. S. Lim, “Thyroid function in patients with chronic renal failure,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. S80–S84, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. I. van Hoek and S. Daminet, “Interactions between thyroid and kidney function in pathological conditions of these organ systems: a review,” General and Comparative Endocrinology, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. 205–215, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. I. Klein and K. Ojamaa, “Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 7, pp. 501–509, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. W. Park, H. B. Dai, K. Ojamaa, E. Lowenstein, I. Klein, and F. W. Sellke, “The direct vasomotor effect of thyroid hormones on rat muscle resistance arteries,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 734–738, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. K. Ojamaa, J. D. Klemperer, and I. Klein, “Acute effects of thyroid hormone on vascular smooth muscle,” Thyroid, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 505–512, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. H. O'Leary and J. F. Polak, “Intima-media thickness: a tool for atherosclerosis imaging and event prediction,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 18L–21L, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Baldassarre, E. Tremoli, M. Amato, F. Veglia, A. Bondioli, and C. R. Sirtori, “Reproducibility validation study comparing analog and digital imaging technologies for the measurement of intima-media thickness,” Stroke, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 1104–1110, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. M. Ridker, M. J. Stampfer, and N. Rifai, “Novel risk factors for systemic atherosclerosis: a comparison of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), and standard cholesterol screening as predictors of peripheral arterial disease,” JAMA, vol. 285, no. 19, pp. 2481–2485, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Gremese and G. Ferraccioli, “The metabolic syndrome: the crossroads between rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular risk,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 582–589, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. P. Sarzi-Puttini, F. Atzeni, R. Gerli et al., “Cardiac involvement in systemic rheumatic diseases: an update,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 849–852, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. I. Klein and K. Ojamaa, “Thyroid hormone: targeting the vascular smooth muscle cell,” Circulation Research, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 260–261, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  16. R. Napoli, B. Biondi, V. Guardasole et al., “Impact of hyperthyroidism and its correction on vascular reactivity in humans,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 25, pp. 3076–3080, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Taddei, N. Caraccio, A. Virdis et al., “Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in subclinical hypothyroidism: beneficial effect of levothyroxine therapy,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 8, pp. 3731–3737, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Fukuyama, T. Ichiki, K. Takeda et al., “Downregulation of vascular angiotensin II type 1 receptor by thyroid hormone,” Hypertension, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 598–603, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. A. R. Cappola and P. W. Ladenson, “Hypothyroidism and atherosclerosis,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 2438–2444, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. E. Hak, H. A. P. Pols, T. J. Visser, H. A. Drexhage, A. Hofman, and J. C. M. Witteman, “Subclinical hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women: the Rotterdam study,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 132, no. 4, pp. 270–278, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. S. Park, S. W. Park, and Y. W. Cho, “Regression of the increased common carotid artery-intima media thickness in subclinical hypothyroidism after thyroid hormone replacement,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 753–758, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Kebapcilar, A. Comlekci, P. Tuncel et al., “Effect of levothyroxine replacement therapy on paraoxonase-1 and carotid intima-media thickness in subclinical hypothyroidism,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. CR41–CR47, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Adrees, J. Gibney, N. El-Saeity, and G. Boran, “Effects of 18 months of l-T4 replacement in women with subclinical hypothyroidism,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 298–303, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. V. V. Fadeyev, J. Sytch, V. Kalashnikov, A. Rojtman, A. Syrkin, and G. Melnichenko, “Levothyroxine replacement therapy in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and coronary artery disease,” Endocrine Practice, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 5–17, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Erem, H. Kavgaci, H. Ersöz et al., “Blood coagulation and fibrinolytic activity in hypothyroidism,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 78–81, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Chadarevian, E. Bruckert, L. Leenhardt, P. Giral, A. Ankri, and G. Turpin, “Components of the fibrinolytic system are differently altered in moderate and severe hypothyroidism,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 732–737, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. A. N. Rennie, P. D. Bewsher, L. E. Murchison, and D. Ogston, “Coagulation and fibrinolysis in thyroid disease,” Acta Haematologica, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 171–177, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Jorde, Y. Figenschau, and J.-B. Hansen, “Haemostatic function in subjects with mild subclinical hypothyroidism. The Tromsø study,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 750–751, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. B. Müller, D. A. Tsakiris, C. B. Roth, M. Guglielmetti, J. J. Staub, and G. A. Marbet, “Haemostatic profile in hypothyroidism as potential risk factor for vascular or thrombotic disease,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 131–137, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Wahrenberg, A. Wennlund, and J. Hoffstedt, “Increased adipose tissue secretion of interleukin-6, but not of leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 or tumour necrosis factor alpha, in Graves' hyperthyroidism,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 146, no. 5, pp. 607–611, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. Akinci, A. Comlekci, S. Yener et al., “Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor antigen levels are inversely correlated with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels in hyperthyroid patients,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 593–599, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. He, S. B. Pedersen, J. M. Bruun, A. S. Lihn, P. F. Jensen, and B. Richelsen, “Differences in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in subcutaneous versus omental adipose tissue in non-obese and obese subjects,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 178–182, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. H. Refsum, P. M. Ueland, O. Nygård, and S. E. Vollset, “Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 49, pp. 31–62, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. L. A. Harker, R. Ross, and S. J. C. R. Slichter andScott, “Homocystine induced arteriosclerosis. The role of endothelial cell injury and platelet response in its genesis,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 731–741, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Thampi, B. W. Stewart, L. Joseph, S. B. Melnyk, L. J. Hennings, and S. Nagarajan, “Dietary homocysteine promotes atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inducing scavenger receptors expression,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 197, no. 2, pp. 620–629, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. M. S. Morris, A. G. Bostom, P. F. Jacques, J. Selhub, and I. H. Rosenberg, “Hyperhomocysteinemia and hypercholesterolemia associated with hypothyroidism in the third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 195–200, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B. G. Nedrebø, U. B. Ericsson, O. Nygård et al., “Plasma total homocysteine levels in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients,” Metabolism, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 89–93, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. J. M. Diekman, N. M. Van Der Put, H. J. Blom, J. G. P. Tijssen, and W. M. Wiersinga, “Determinants of changes in plasma homocysteine in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 197–204, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. G. Nedrebø, O. Nygård, P. M. Ueland, and E. A. Lien, “Plasma total homocysteine in hyper- and hypothyroid patients before and during 12 months of treatment,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1738–1741, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. D. Lindeman, L. J. Romero, D. S. Schade, S. Wayne, R. N. Baumgartner, and P. J. Garry, “Impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on serum total homocysteine concentrations, the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD), and CHD risk factors in the New Mexico Elder Health Survey,” Thyroid, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 595–600, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. Durga, P. Verhoef, M. L. Bots, and E. Schouten, “Homocysteine and carotid intima-media thickness: a critical appraisal of the evidence,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. J. Durga, M. L. Bots, E. G. Schouten, F. J. Kok, and P. Verhoef, “Low concentrations of folate, not hyperhomocysteinemia, are associated with carotid intima-media thickness,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 179, no. 2, pp. 285–292, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. M. Y. Tsai, D. K. Arnett, J. H. Eckfeldt, R. R. Williams, and R. C. Ellison, “Plasma homocysteine and its association with carotid intimal-medial wall thickness and prevalent coronary heart disease: NHLBI family heart study,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 519–524, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Danesh, R. Collins, P. Appleby, and R. Peto, “Association of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, albumin, or leukocyte count with coronary heart disease: meta-analyses of prospective studies,” JAMA, vol. 279, no. 18, pp. 1477–1482, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. M. Ridker, C. H. Hennekens, J. E. Buring, and N. Rifai, “C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 342, no. 12, pp. 836–843, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. G. J. Blake, N. Rifai, J. E. Buring, and P. M. Ridker, “Blood pressure, C-reactive protein, and risk of future cardiovascular events,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 24, pp. 2993–2999, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. A. R. Folsom, J. S. Pankow, R. P. Tracy et al., “Association of C-reactive protein with markers of prevalent atherosclerotic disease,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 112–117, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. G. D. O. Lowe and M. B. Pepys, “C-reactive protein and cardiovascular disease: weighing the evidence,” Current Atherosclerosis Reports, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 421–428, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. B. Pepys, “CRP or not CRP? That is the question,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1091–1094, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. D. Sander, C. Schulze-Horn, H. Bickel, H. Gnahn, E. Bartels, and B. Conrad, “Combined effects of hemoglobin A1c and C-reactive protein on the progression of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis: the INVADE Study,” Stroke, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 351–357, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  51. H. Hashimoto, K. Kitagawa, H. Hougaku, H. Etani, and M. Hori, “C-reactive protein predicts carotid atherosclerosis progression in mild to moderate risk and middle-aged patients,” Clinical and Investigative Medicine, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 77–82, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Juonala, J. S. A. Viikari, T. Rönnemaa, L. Taittonen, J. Marniemi, and O. T. Raitakari, “Childhood C-reactive protein in predicting CRP and carotid intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1883–1888, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. M. W. Lorenz, P. Karbstein, H. S. Markus, and M. Sitzer, “High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is not associated with carotid intima-media progression: the Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1774–1779, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  54. F. Toruner, A. E. Altinova, A. Karakoc et al., “Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism,” Advances in Therapy, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 430–437, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  55. T. Nagasaki, M. Inaba, K. Shirakawa et al., “Increased levels of C-reactive protein in hypothyroid patients and its correlation with arterial stiffness in the common carotid artery,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 61, no. 2-3, pp. 167–172, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  56. E. N. Pearce, F. Bogazzi, E. Martino et al., “The prevalence of elevated serum C-reactive protein levels in inflammatory and noninflammatory thyroid disease,” Thyroid, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 643–648, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. Napoli, V. Guardasole, E. Zarra et al., “Impaired endothelial- and nonendothelial-mediated vasodilation in patients with acute or chronic hypothyroidism,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 107–111, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  58. W. Y. Lee, J. Y. Suh, E. J. Rhee, J. S. Park, K. C. Sung, and S. W. Kim, “Plasma CRP, apolipoprotein A-1, apolipoprotein B and Lp(a) levels according to thyroid function status,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 540–545, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  59. M. Christ-Crain, C. Meier, M. Guglielmetti et al., “Elevated C-reactive protein and homocysteine values: cardiovascular risk factors in hypothyroidism? A cross-sectional and a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 379–386, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. H. Chu, J. K. Lee, M. C. Wang et al., “Change of visfatin, C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin sensitivity in patients with hyperthyroidism,” Metabolism, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1380–1383, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  61. J. Burggraaf, S. Lalezari, J. J. Emei et al., “Endothelial function in patients with hyperthyroidism before and after treatment with propranolol and thiamazol,” Thyroid, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 153–160, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus