Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 293821, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/293821
Research Article

Impact of Maternal Physical Activity and Infant Feeding Practices on Infant Weight Gain and Adiposity

1The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
2Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Joseph and Wolf Lebovic Health Complex, 60 Murray Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5T 3L9
3Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
4Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Joseph and Wolf Lebovic Health Complex, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X5
5Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, FitzGerald Building, 150 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2

Received 9 March 2012; Revised 25 June 2012; Accepted 11 July 2012

Academic Editor: Jack R. Wall

Copyright © 2012 Lisa Chu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. Wang and T. Lobstein, “Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity,” International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 11–25, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. De Onis, M. Blössner, and E. Borghi, “Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1257–1264, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Aerts and F. A. Van Assche, “Intra-uterine transmission of disease,” Placenta, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 905–911, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Freinkel, “Of pregnancy and progeny,” Diabetes, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1023–1035, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Ong and R. Loos, “Rapid infancy weight gain and subsequent obesity: systematic reviews and hopeful suggestions,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 904–908, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. U. Ekelund, K. K. Ong, Y. Linné et al., “Association of weight gain in infancy and early childhood with metabolic risk in young adults,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 98–103, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Stettler, “Nature and strength of epidemiological evidence for origins of childhood and adulthood obesity in the first year of life,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1035–1043, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. W. Demerath, D. Reed, A. C. Choh et al., “Rapid postnatal weight gain and visceral adiposity in adulthood: the fels longitudinal study,” Obesity, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2060–2066, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. M. Catalano, A. Thomas, L. Huston-Presley, and S. B. Amini, “Increased fetal adiposity: a very sensitive marker of abnormal in utero development,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 189, no. 6, pp. 1698–1704, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Dabelea, W. C. Knowler, and D. J. Pettitt, “Effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring: follow-up research in the Pima Indians,” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 83–88, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. W. Franks, H. C. Looker, S. Kobes et al., “Gestational glucose tolerance and risk of type 2 diabetes in young Pima Indian offspring,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 460–465, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. M. Catalano, K. Farrell, A. Thomas et al., “Perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity and metabolic dysregulation,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1303–1313, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. C. Whitaker, “Predicting preschooler obesity at birth: the role of maternal obesity in early pregnancy,” Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. e29–e36, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. L. Baker, K. F. Michaelsen, K. M. Rasmussen, and T. I. A. Sørensen, “Maternal prepregnant body mass index, duration of breastfeeding, and timing of complementary food introduction are associated with infant weight gain,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 1579–1588, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. K. Hamilton, E. Odrobina, J. Yin, A. J. Hanley, B. Zinman, and R. Retnakaran, “Maternal insulin sensitivity during pregnancy predicts infant weight gain and adiposity at 1 year of age,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 340–346, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. G. Moses, M. Luebcke, W. S. Davis et al., “Effect of a low-glycemic-index diet during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 807–812, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. F. Clapp, “Maternal carbohydrate intake and pregnancy outcome,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 45–50, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. F. Clapp, “Influence of endurance exercise and diet on human placental development and fetal growth,” Placenta, vol. 27, no. 6-7, pp. 527–534, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. A. Hopkins, J. C. Baldi, W. S. Cutfield, L. McCowan, and P. L. Hofman, “Exercise training in pregnancy reduces offspring size without changes in maternal insulin sensitivity,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 2080–2088, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Syme, M. Abrahamowicz, A. Mahboubi et al., “Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and accumulation of intra-abdominal fat during adolescence,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1021–1025, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Mizutani, K. Suzuki, N. Kondo, and Z. Yamagata, “Association of maternal lifestyles including smoking during pregnancy with childhood obesity,” Obesity, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 3133–3139, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. Oken, E. B. Levitan, and M. W. Gillman, “Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child overweight: systematic review and meta-analysis,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 201–210, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Toschke, B. Koletzko, W. Slikker, M. Hermann, and R. Von Kries, “Childhood obesity is associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 161, no. 8, pp. 445–448, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Plagemann and T. Harder, “Breast feeding and the risk of obesity and related metabolic diseases in the child,” Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 222–232, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Harder, E. Rodekamp, K. Schellong, J. W. Dudenhausen, and A. Plagemann, “Birth weight and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 165, no. 8, pp. 849–857, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. Hoddinott, D. Tappin, and C. Wright, “Breast feeding,” British Medical Journal, vol. 336, no. 7649, pp. 881–887, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. M. Grummer-Strawn and Z. Mei, “Does breastfeeding protect against pediatric overweight? Analysis of longitudinal data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System,” Pediatrics, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. e81–e86, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Harder, R. Bergmann, G. Kallischnigg, and A. Plagemann, “Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 162, no. 5, pp. 397–403, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. S. Kramer, T. Guo, R. W. Platt et al., “Feeding effects on growth during infancy,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 600–605, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I. Gunnarsdottir, L. Schack-Nielsen, K. F. Michaelsen, T. I. A. Sørensen, and I. Thorsdottir, “Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI—two similar follow-up cohorts,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 201–207, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Li, H. Kaur, W. S. Choi, T. T. K. Huang, R. E. Lee, and J. S. Ahluwalia, “Additive interactions of maternal prepregnancy BMI and breast-feeding on childhood overweight,” Obesity Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 362–371, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. L. Burdette, R. C. Whitaker, W. C. Hall, and S. R. Daniels, “Breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods, and adiposity at 5 y of age,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 550–558, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. K. Certain and R. S. Kahn, “Prevalence, correlates, and trajectory of television viewing among infants and toddlers,” Pediatrics, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 634–642, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. E. Barlow, “Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report,” Pediatrics, vol. 120, supplement 4, pp. S164–192, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. Retnakaran, A. J. G. Hanley, N. Raif, P. W. Connelly, M. Sermer, and B. Zinman, “C-reactive protein and gestational diabetes: the central role of maternal obesity,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 8, pp. 3507–3512, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Matsuda and R. A. DeFronzo, “Insulin sensitivity indices obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing: comparison with the euglycemic insulin clamp,” Diabetes Care, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1462–1470, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. A. H. Baecke, J. Burema, and J. E. R. Frijters, “A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 936–942, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. A. Pereira, S. J. FitzerGerald, E. W. Gregg et al., “A collection of physical Activity Questionnaires for health-related research,” Medicine and science in sports and exercise, vol. 29, supplement 6, pp. S1–S205, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. E. Ainsworth, W. L. Haskell, M. C. Whitt et al., “Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 32, supplement 9, pp. S498–S504, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Hollingshead, Hollingshead Four Factor Index of Social Status, Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, Conn, USA, 1975.
  41. C. Wright, R. Lakshman, P. Emmett, and K. K. Ong, “Implications of adopting the WHO 2006 Child Growth Standard in the UK: two prospective cohort studies,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 566–569, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. A. Dennison, T. A. Erb, and P. L. Jenkins, “Television viewing and television in bedroom associated with overweight risk among low-income preschool children,” Pediatrics, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 1028–1035, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Retnakaran, Y. Qi, M. Sermer, P. W. Connelly, B. Zinman, and A. J. G. Hanley, “Pre-gravid physical activity and reduced risk of glucose intolerance in pregnancy: the role of insulin sensitivity,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 615–622, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. Knight, B. M. Shields, A. Hill, R. J. Powell, D. Wright, and A. T. Hattersley, “The impact of maternal glycemia and obesity on early postnatal growth in a nondiabetic caucasian population,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 777–783, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. A. Mendoza, F. J. Zimmerman, and D. A. Christakis, “Television viewing, computer use, obesity, and adiposity in US preschool children,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 4, article 44, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. Jago, T. Baranowski, J. C. Baranowski, D. Thompson, and K. A. Greaves, “BMI from 3-6y of age is predicted by TV viewing and physical activity, not diet,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 557–564, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Beyerlein, A. M. Toschke, and R. Von Kries, “Risk factors for childhood overweight: shift of the mean body mass index and shift of the upper percentiles: results from a cross-sectional study,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 642–648, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. S. Kramer, L. Matush, I. Vanilovich et al., “A randomized breast-feeding promotion intervention did not reduce child obesity in belarus,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 417S–421S, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Huus, J. F. Ludvigsson, K. Enskär, and J. Ludvigsson, “Exclusive breastfeeding of Swedish children and its possible influence on the development of obesity: a prospective cohort study,” BMC Pediatrics, vol. 8, article 42, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. O. Miralles, J. Sánchez, A. Palou, and C. Picó, “A physiological role of breast milk leptin in body weight control in developing infants,” Obesity, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1371–1377, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. F. Savino, M. F. Fissore, E. C. Grassino, G. E. Nanni, R. Oggero, and L. Silvestro, “Ghrelin, leptin and IGF-I levels in breast-fed and formula-fed infants in the first years of life,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 531–537, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. G. Woo, M. L. Guerrero, M. Altaye et al., “Human milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth in two independent cohorts,” Breastfeeding Medicine, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 101–109, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. B. Koletzko, R. Von Kries, R. Closa et al., “Lower protein in infant formula is associated with lower weight up to age 2 y: a randomized clinical trial,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 1836–1845, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. B. Koletzko, R. Von Kries, R. Closa, and J. Escribano, “Can infant feeding choices modulate later obesity risk?” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 1502S–1508S, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. H. Hauner, M. Wabitsch, K. Zwiauer, K. Widhalm, and E. F. Pfeiffer, “Adipogenic activity in sera from obese children before and after weight reduction,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 63–67, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. E. M. Taveras, K. S. Scanlon, L. Birch, S. L. Rifas-Shiman, J. W. Rich-Edwards, and M. W. Gillman, “Association of breastfeeding with maternal control of infant feeding at age 1 year,” Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 5, pp. e577–e583, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. M. Taveras, S. L. Rifas-Shiman, K. S. Scanlon, L. M. Grummer-Strawn, B. Sherry, and M. W. Gillman, “To what extent is the protective effect of breastfeeding on future overweight explained by decreased maternal feeding restriction?” Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 2341–2348, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. Sievers, H. D. Oldigs, R. Santer, and J. Schaub, “Feeding patterns in breast-fed and formula-fed infants,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 243–248, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Y. Huh, S. L. Rifas-Shiman, E. M. Taveras, E. Oken, and M. W. Gillman, “Timing of solid food introduction and risk of obesity in preschool-aged children,” Pediatrics, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. e544–e551, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. E. Gluck, C. A. Venti, R. S. Lindsay, W. C. Knowler, A. D. Salbe, and J. Krakoff, “Maternal influence, not diabetic intrauterine environment, predicts children's energy intake,” Obesity, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 772–777, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus