Light Modulates Leptin and Ghrelin in Sleep-Restricted Adults
Differences (incremental values) in the normalized ghrelin concentrations (mean ± SEM) relative to the reference, 5-hour sleep/dim-light condition. Sample concentrations collected at 60, 90, and 120 minutes for the 8-hour sleep/dim-light condition, those for the 5-hour sleep/red-light condition, those for the 5-hour sleep/green-light condition, and those for the 5-hour sleep/blue-light condition were each normalized to the values obtained at 60, 90, and 120 minutes for the reference, 5-hour sleep/dim-light condition. These normalized values were averaged across subjects and times. The incremental values reflect the difference in the averages of the four different sleep/lighting conditions from the 5-hour sleep/dim-light condition. Incremental values after the 5-hour sleep/red-light and 5-hour sleep/green-light conditions were significantly lower than those in the reference, 5-hour sleep/dim-light condition.