Table 2: Symptoms and associated morbidities with low testosterone levels.

Symptoms and associated morbidities

Sexual functionCognition and vitality

Loss of libidoDecline in verbal and visual memory
Erections: reduced quality and frequency, including nocturnal erectionsDecline in visuospatial performance
Oligospermia or azoospermiaDepressed mood
Gynecomastia/breast discomfortDecreased energy
Changes in secondary hair characteristics (e.g., shaving)Decline in feelings of initiative
Changes in size of testesDecreased sense of vitality
Decreased fertility

Muscle, bone, and body composition Other

Progressive decrease in muscle massSleep disturbance
Decreased physical functionLipid abnormalities
Decrease in bone mineral density; osteopenia, osteoporosis, increased risk of bone fracturesMild anemia (normochromic, normocytic)
Increase in visceral fatDecreased response to PDE5 inhibitors