Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2012, Article ID 717185, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/717185
Clinical Study

Further Evidence on the Role of Thyroid Autoimmunity in Women with Recurrent Miscarriage

1Fatebenefratelli Association for Research (AFaR), Ospedale Fatebenefratelli Isola Tiberina, Lungotevere de' Cenci 5, 00186 Rome, Italy
2Department of Endocrinology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Ospedale Fatebenefratelli Isola Tiberina, 00186 Rome, Italy
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Ospedale Fatebenefratelli Isola Tiberina, 00186 Rome, Italy

Received 31 July 2011; Accepted 10 October 2011

Academic Editor: Shern L. Chew

Copyright © 2012 Natalia Lazzarin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Stagnaro-Green, “Thyroid antibodies and miscarriage: where are we at a generation later?” Journal of Thyroid Research, vol. 2011, Article ID 841949, 7 pages, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Abalovich, N. Amino, L. A. Barbour et al., “Clinical practice guideline: management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, supplement 8, pp. S1–S47, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. E. Pratt, G. Kaberlein, A. Dudkiewicz, V. Karande, and N. Gleicher, “The association of antithyroid antibodies in euthyroid nonpregnant women with recurrent first trimester abortions in the next pregnancy,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1001–1005, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. A. Toulis, D. G. Goulis, C. A. Venetis et al., “Risk of spontaneous miscarriage in euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity undergoing IVF: a meta-analysis,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 162, no. 4, pp. 643–652, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Pratt, M. Novotny, G. Kaberlein, A. Dudkiewicz, and N. Gleicher, “Antithyroid antibodies and the association with non-organ-specific antibodies in recurrent pregnancy loss,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 168, no. 3, pp. 837–841, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. Y. Kim, H. J. Cho, H. Y. Kim et al., “Thyroid autoimmunity and its association with cellular and humoral immunity in women with reproductive failures,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 78–87, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. Vaquero, N. Lazzarin, C. De Carolis, H. Valensise, C. Moretti, and C. Romanini, “Mild thyroid abnormalities and recurrent spontaneous abortion: diagnostic and therapeutical approach,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 204–208, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Negro, G. Formoso, T. Mangieri, A. Pezzarossa, D. Dazzi, and H. Hassan, “Levothyroxine treatment in euthyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease: effects on obstetrical complications,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 2587–2591, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. W. Raber, P. Nowotny, E. Vytiska-Binstorfer, and H. Vierhapper, “Thyroxine treatment modified in infertile women according to thyroxine-releasing hormone testing: 5 year follow-up of 283 women referred after exclusion of absolute causes of infertility,” Human Reproduction, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 707–714, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Negro, A. Schwartz, R. Gismondi, A. Tinelli, T. Mangieri, and A. Stagnaro-Green, “Increased pregnancy loss rate in thyroid antibody negative women with TSH levels between 2.5 and 5.0 in the first trimester of pregnancy,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 9, pp. E44–E48, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Abalovich, N. Amino, L. A. Barbour et al., “Clinical practice guideline: management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, supplement 8, pp. S1–S47, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Dal Lago, E. Vaquero, P. Pasqualetti et al., “Prediction of early pregnancy maternal thyroid impairment in women affected with unexplained recurrent miscarriage,” Human Reproduction, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1324–1330, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. D. Glinoer, “The regulation of thyroid function in pregnancy: pathways of endocrine adaptation from physiology to pathology,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 404–433, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Ohara, T. Tsujino, and T. Maruo, “The role of thyroid hormone in trophoblast function, early pregnancy maintenance, and fetal neurodevelopment,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 982–990, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Maruo, H. Matsuo, and M. Mochizuki, “Thyroid hormone as a biological amplifier of differentiated trophoblast function in early pregnancy,” Acta Endocrinologica, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 58–66, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. H. Wang and J. R. Baker, “The role of apoptosis in thyroid autoimmunity,” Thyroid, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 975–979, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. Oki, H. Matsuo, S. Nakago, H. Murakoshi, J. B. Laoag-Fernandez, and T. Maruo, “Effects of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine on the invasive potential and the expression of integrins and matrix metalloproteinases in cultured early placental extravillous trophoblasts,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 5213–5221, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. H. Lazarus, “Thyroid hormone and intellectual development: a clinician's view,” Thyroid, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 659–660, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. E. Haddow, G. E. Palomaki, W. C. Allan et al., “Maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 341, no. 8, pp. 549–555, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus