Table 2: Impact of anaemia on the distribution of CVD risk profiles in women by ethnic group.

Risk factor Type of anaemia Caucasian
( )
South Asian
( )
Afro-Caribbean
( )
value*

Type 2 diabetesAll anaemia 6.3 (5.1–7.4)20.5 (16.0–25.4)9.2 (4.0–14.4)<0.001
Iron deficiency anaemia 3.0 (2.1–4.0)45.0 (39.0–51.0)0.0<0.001
Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia 10.5 (9.1–12.0)8.5 (5.2–12.0)0.00.756
Anaemia of chronic disease 7.0 (5.3–8.0)15.2 (11.0–20.0)10.1 (5.0–16.0)0.002

Ischemic heart diseaseAll anaemia 9.2 (8.0–11.0)11.4 (8.0–15.2)3.5 (0.2–7.0)0.005
Iron deficiency anaemia 12.0 (10.2–13.3)0.00.00.206
Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia 12.4 (10.8–13.9)26.6 (21.3–31.9)0.00.168
Anaemia of chronic disease 9.0 (7.2–10.0)8.4 (5.1–12.0)0.00.065

Myocardial infarctionAll anaemia 1.6 (1.0–2.2)2.0 (0.2–3.4)0.00.356
Iron deficiency anaemia 2.3 (1.6–3.0)2.4 (0.5–4.2)0.00.731
Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia 1.0 (0.5–1.4)4.3 (2.0–7.0)0.00.171
Anaemia of chronic disease 1.6 (1.0–2.2)2.0 (0.3–4.0)0.00.632

HypertensionAll anaemia 15.3 (14.0–17.0)29.2 (24.0–35.0)25.0 (17.0–32.2)0.918
Iron deficiency anaemia 21.0 (19.0–23.0)28.0 (22.4–33.2)0.00.786
Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia 24.0 (22.0–26.0)23.4 (18.3–28.5)0.00.601
Anaemia of chronic disease 13.4 (12.0–15.0)23.0 (18.0–28.0)19.4 (12.3–27.0)0.970

Atrial fibrillationAll anaemia 6.6 (5.4–7.8)1.1 (0–2.3)3.5 (0.2–6.9)<0.001
Iron deficiency anaemia 10.3 (9.0–12.0)2.4 (0.5–4.2)0.00.024
Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia 8.8 (7.4–10.1)0.00.00.583
Anaemia of chronic disease 6.1 (0.0–2.1)1.0 (0.0–2.1)7.1 (3.0–12.0)0.005

Data are age-adjusted percent (95% CI).
*On the basis of chi-square test across all groups.