International Journal of Endocrinology / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach

Table 2

Plasma biochemical and inflammatory marker levels, at the end of the dietary intervention.

CONTFRUCTFRUCTMIN Global P
P between two groups
Mean(SEM)Mean(SEM)Mean(SEM)

GOT (U/L), 
105.14(13.062)82.14(11.066)84.71(7.383)0.279
GPT (U/L), 
50.86(8.681)38.57(1.192)36.57(2.626)0.146
Total bilirubin (mg/L), 
n = 5–7
2.00(0.0655)1.90(0.0447)2.07(0.127)0.481
Uric acid (mg/L), 
n = 5–7
6.14(0.662)4.72(0.371)5.01(0.403)0.161
Urea (g/L), 
n = 5–7
0.286(0.0104)0.148(0.0198)0.186(0.0210)<0.001 (C versus F) < 0.001; 
(C versus FM) 0.001; 
(F versus FM) 0.163
Creatinine (mg/L), 
n = 5–7
5.14(0.153)4.56(0.108)5.00(0.162)0.052 (C versus F) 0.019; 
(C versus FM) 0.492; 
(F versus FM) 0.065
Total proteins (g/L), 
n = 5–7
59.57(0.634)62.98(0.881)61.49(0.710)0.018 [(C versus F) 0.006; 
(C versus FM) 0.068; 
(F versus FM) 0.182]
Albumin (g/L), 
n = 5–7
27.23(0.342)29.50(0.214)29.01(0.304)<0.001 (C versus F) < 0.001; 
(C versus FM) 0.001; 
(F versus FM) 0.283
Total cholesterol (g/L), 
n = 5–7
0.686(0.0334)0.666(0.100)0.753(0.0390) 0.525
HDL-cholesterol (g/L), 
n = 5–7
0.357(0.0224)0.3540(0.0486)0.397(0.0218)0.518
LDL-cholesterol (g/L), 
n = 5–7
0.201(0.0126)0.204(0.0227)0.229(0.0201)0.505
HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol, 
n = 5–7
0.520(0.0140)0.536(0.0104)0.527(0.00888)0.637
HDL-cholesterol/LDL cholesterol, 
n = 5–7
1.82(0.189)1.75(0.164)1.81(0.171)0.963
Ferritin (U/L), 
n = 5–7
24.33(2.577)19.18(0.450)19.63(0.374)0.082 (C versus F) 0.055; 
(C versus FM) 0.055; 
(F versus FM) 0.859
OPG (pg/mL), 
n = 6-7
789.57(226.538)571.21(40.265)667.87(83.676)0.606
RANKL (pg/mL), 
n = 6-7
10.15(1.694)13.91(2.675)7.79(1.470)0.143
OPG/RANKL, 
n = 5–7
126.37(57.324)45.37(9.376)109.38(41.657)0.401
C-reactive protein (mg/L), 
n = 5-6
0.04167(0.0095)0.03800(0.0058)0.05500(0.0034)0.216
Substance P (pg/mL), 
1978.67(184.475)1968.55(216.113)2416.07(158.299)0.186
TNF- (pg/mL), 
718.80(121.457)2282.75(1142.161)818.77(241.407)0.216
IL-6 (pg/mL), 
n = 5-6
3.007(0.412)3.486(0.601)2.681(0.363)0.514

C or CONT: control; F or FRUCT: 10% fructose in tap water; FM or FRUCTMIN: 10% fructose in natural mineral-rich water; GOT: glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase; GPT: glutamic-pyruvic transaminase; IL-6: interleukin-6; OPG: osteoprotegerin; RANKL: receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand; SEM: standard error of the mean; TNF- : tumor necrosis factor-alpha.