Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2014, Article ID 935131, 9 pages
Review Article

Autoimmune and Neoplastic Thyroid Diseases Associated with Hepatitis C Chronic Infection

1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Savi 10, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2Department of Medical, Surgical, Maternal, Pediatric and Adult Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 41100 Modena, Italy

Received 1 August 2014; Accepted 24 September 2014; Published 13 October 2014

Academic Editor: Marek Bolanowski

Copyright © 2014 Poupak Fallahi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Frequently, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection have high levels of serum anti-thyroperoxidase and/or anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies, ultrasonographic signs of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and subclinical hypothyroidism, in female gender versus healthy controls, or hepatitis B virus infected patients. In patients with “HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia” (MC + HCV), a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmune disorders was shown not only compared to controls, but also versus HCV patients without cryoglobulinemia. Patients with MC + HCV or HCV chronic infection show a higher prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer than controls, in particular in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients with HCV chronic infection, or with MC + HCV, in presence of autoimmune thyroiditis, show higher serum levels of T-helper (Th)1 (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) chemokine, but normal levels of Th2 (C-C motif) ligand 2 chemokine, than patients without thyroiditis. HCV thyroid infection could act by upregulating CXCL10 gene expression and secretion in thyrocytes recruiting Th1 lymphocytes that secrete interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. These cytokines might induce a further CXCL10 secretion by thyrocytes, thus perpetuating the immune cascade, which may lead to the appearance of autoimmune thyroid disorders in genetically predisposed subjects. A careful monitoring of thyroid function, particularly where nodules occur, is recommended in HCV patients.