Figure 4: Schematic diagram showing the main prosurvival/antiapoptotic intracellular pathways activated by PACAP. As apparent from the diagram, the intrinsic apoptotic cascade represents one of the main targets of PACAP to protect cells from death. cAMP, cyclic 3′,5′ adenosine monophosphate; PKA, protein kinase A; PAC1, VPAC1, VPAC2, PACAP-binding receptors; ERK, extracellular regulated protein kinase, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, antiapoptotic factors; JNK, Janus kinase, Bad, BAX, cytochrome c release, proapoptotic factors; CREB, cAMP responsive element binding protein; CBP, CREB binding protein.