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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2015, Article ID 308190, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/308190
Research Article

Low Magnesium Levels and FGF-23 Dysregulation Predict Mitral Valve Calcification as well as Intima Media Thickness in Predialysis Diabetic Patients

1Nephrology, Hospital de Faro, Rua Leão Penedo, 8000-386 Faro, Portugal
2Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland GmbH, 61352 Bad Homburg, Germany
3Pathology Clinic, Hospital de Faro, 8000-386 Faro, Portugal
4Cardiology, Hospital de Faro, 8000-386 Faro, Portugal
5Pharmacology, Gnostic Laboratory, 8000-386 Faro, Portugal

Received 31 August 2014; Accepted 15 October 2014

Academic Editor: Ilias Migdalis

Copyright © 2015 Ana Paula Silva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Mitral valve calcification and intima media thickness (IMT) are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) implicated with high cardiovascular mortality. Objective. To investigate the implication of magnesium and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) levels with mitral valve calcification and IMT in CKD diabetic patients. Methods. Observational, prospective study involving 150 diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD, divided according to Wilkins Score. Carotid-echodoppler and transthoracic echocardiography were used to assess calcification. Statistical tests used to establish comparisons between groups, to identify risk factors, and to establish cut-off points for prediction of mitral valve calcification. Results. FGF-23 values continually increased with higher values for both IMT and calcification whereas the opposite trend was observed for magnesium. FGF-23 and magnesium were found to independently predict mitral valve calcification and IMT . Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the number of deaths was higher in patients with lower magnesium levels and poorer Wilkins score. The mean cut-off value for FGF-23 was 117 RU/mL and for magnesium 1.7 mg/dL. Conclusions. Hypomagnesemia and high FGF-23 levels are independent predictors of mitral valve calcification and IMT and are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in this population. They might be used as diagnostic/therapeutic targets in order to better manage the high cardiovascular risk in CKD patients.