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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2015, Article ID 384860, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/384860
Review Article

Involvement of the Androgen and Glucocorticoid Receptors in Bladder Cancer

1Center for Hypertension and Personalized Medicine, Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
2Department of Urology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH 43614, USA

Received 2 April 2015; Revised 25 July 2015; Accepted 27 July 2015

Academic Editor: Franco Veglio

Copyright © 2015 Lucien McBeth et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bladder cancer is encountered worldwide having been associated with a host of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. The disease has a male to female prevalence of 3 : 1. This disparity has raised the possibility of the androgen receptor (AR) pathway being involved in the genesis of the disease; indeed, research has shown that AR is involved in and is likely a driver of bladder cancer. Similarly, an inflammatory response has been implicated as a major player in bladder carcinogenesis. Consistent with this concept, recent work on anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid signaling points to a pathway that may impact bladder cancer. The glucocorticoid receptor- (GR-) α isoform has an important role in suppressing inflammatory processes, which may be attenuated by AR in the development of bladder cancer. In addition, a GR isoform that is inhibitory to GRα, GRβ, is proinflammatory and has been shown to induce cancer growth. In this paper, we review the evidence of inflammatory mediators and the relationship of AR and GR isoforms as they relate to the propensity for bladder cancer.