International Journal of Endocrinology / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

Table 2

Articles selected for Cortisol and shift work, published between 2003 and 2014.

Author (year) PopulationMain result

Dijk et al. (2012) [35]Simulating night shiftIndividual differences in amplitude of the melatonin rhythm were correlated with body temperature and cortisol.
Korompeli et al. (2009) [36]Rotating and day shift workThe mean reduction of cortisol level between the two measurements was greater for the rotating than morning shift group.
Scheer et al. (2009) [37]Simulating night shift Daily cortisol rhythm was reversed. Subjects exhibit high levels of postprandial glucose responses.
Harris et al. (2010) [38]Rotating shift (12-h day shift and 12-h night). Two weeks working followed by 4 weeks off work Cortisol rhythm went back towards a normal rhythm in the second week, but it was not returned completely to normal levels when the workers returned home for the 4 weeks off period.
Griefahn and Robens (2010) [39]Simulating night shiftThe increased of the CAR might be the anticipation of the upcoming demands.
Ulha et al. (2011) [40]Irregular shift and day shift workers The concentration of cortisol declines throughout the day, reaching its lowest level during the night for day shift workers. Levels of CAR were higher on work days compared to days-off, for day shift workers. CAR levels were similar between work days and days-off for irregular shift workers.
Machi et al. (2012) [41]Night and day shift workers Morning cortisol peak was decreased or delayed after a night shift.
Wong et al. (2012) [42]Rotating shift workers and day shift workersHigh job strain elevated daily cortisol levels.
Nakajima et al. (2012) [43]24-h work shift and over the subsequent day-off Early morning cortisol levels were attenuated after work.
Diez et al. (2011) [44]Morning and afternoon shifts Flattening of cortisol morning-evening difference.
Williams et al. (2005) [45]Rotating shift (early morning-shift, dayshift, and control days).Cortisol levels on waking were lower in the early morning-shift.
Kudielka et al. (2007) [46]Day x night shift workersCortisol levels in permanent night workers seemed to be blunted during night work and days-off. Circadian cortisol levels were not disturbed in former night workers who recently switched to fast rotating shift schedule.
Boquet et al. (2004) [47]Rotating shift work: clockwise x counterclockwise direction.No significant differences of rotating shift condition for cortisol or melatonin.
Vangelova (2008) [48]Rotating shift Higher salivary cortisol during morning and night shifts in the backward rotating group.
de Valck et al. (2007) [49]Rotating shift: fast-forward versus a slow-backward rotating shiftSalivary cortisol did not significantly differ between the fast-forward and the slow-backward rotation shift systems.
Looser et al. (2010) [50]Day shiftAssociations between cortisol levels and heart rates, during periods of high stress.
van de Werken et al. (2014) [51]Simulating Shift work Exposure to stress, as in shift work, is predicted to result in abnormal cortisol levels.