International Journal of Endocrinology / 2015 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

Table 3

Articles selected for Obesity and shift work published between 2003 and 2014.

Autors (year)PopulationMain result

Holmbäck et al. (2003) [52]Simulated shiftworkers Insulin, PP, TSH, fT4, cortisol and leptin responses to meal intake differed with respect to time of day. The decreased evening/nocturnal responses of cortisol and PP to meal intake indicate that nocturnal eating and night work might have health implications.
Qin et al. (2003) [53]Shiftworkers and dayworkersStrong association between glucose and insulin in the diurnal lifestyle group after meals was damaged in the nocturnal lifestyle group. It was suggested that nocturnal life leads to the impairment of insulin response to glucose.
Al-Naimi et al. (2004) [54]Simulated shiftworkers Sequential meal ingestion has a more pronounced effect on subsequent lipid than carbohydrate tolerance.
Fogteloo et al. (2004) [55]Simulated shiftworkers and dayworkersThe dispersion of food intake over 24 h affects the diurnal leptin rhythm. These changes could not be attributed to changes in circadian timing or energy balance.
Erdmann et al. (2005) [56]DayworkersLeptin could be of importance for suppression of basal ghrelin during moderate weight gain in normoinsulinemic subjects, whereas hyperinsulinemia but not leptin is responsible in more severe obesity. Postprandial suppression of ghrelin is attenuated by as yet unknown mechanisms that are related to body weight but not to insulin or type 2 diabetes.
Flegal et al. (2005) [57]Shiftworkers and dayworkersUnderweight and obesity, particularly higher levels of obesity, were associated with increased mortality relative to the normal weight category.
Langenberg et al. (2005) [58]Shiftworkers and dayworkersGhrelin, adiponectin, and leptin do not predict weight gain beyond reflecting the influence of attained body size on future changes in weight or body mass index
Shea et al. (2005) [59]Simulated shiftworkers and dayworkersAlterations in the sleep/wake schedule would lead to an increased daily range in circulating leptin, with lowest leptin upon awakening, which, by influencing food intake and energy balance, could be implicated in the increased prevalence of obesity in the shift work population.
Monti et al. (2006) [60]Shiftworkers and dayworkersLeptin increases and ghrelin decreases were linear over the five BMI categories, suggesting there is no threshold of BMI where the hormone levels change abruptly.
Moreno et al. (2006) [61]Shiftworkers and dayworkersShort sleep duration as well as age >40 years are independently associated with obesity.
Chaput et al. (2007) [62]Shiftworkers and dayworkersShort sleep duration does not predict an increased risk of being overweight/obese in older women.
Gates et al. (2008) [63]Shiftworkers and dayworkersThe relationship between BMI and presenteeism is characterized by a threshold effect, where extremely or moderately obese workers are significantly less productive than mildly obese workers.
Scheer et al. (2009) [37]Simulated shiftworkers and dayworkersAdverse cardiometabolic implications of circadian misalignment, as occurs acutely with jet lag and chronically with shift work.
Marqueze et al. (2013) [64]Shiftworkers and dayworkersTruck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical activity.