Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2015, Article ID 957105, 8 pages
Research Article

Age- and Gender-Related Differences in LDL-Cholesterol Management in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Epidemiology, Fondazione Mario Negri Sud, Via Nazionale, 66030 S. Maria Imbaro, Italy
3Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, ASL TO5, 10023 Chieri, Italy
4Diabetes and Endocrinology Unit, Cardarelli Hospital, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
5Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Sandro Pertini Hospital, 00157 Rome, Italy
6Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Unit, San Martino Hospital, 09170 Oristano, Italy
7Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, S. Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University, 00189 Rome, Italy
8Diabetes Unit, Montecchio Hospital, 42027 Montecchio Emilia, Italy

Received 4 July 2014; Revised 1 December 2014; Accepted 1 December 2014

Academic Editor: Alexandra Kautzky-Willer

Copyright © 2015 Giuseppina Russo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Dyslipidemia contribute to the excess of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk observed in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is the major target for CHD prevention, and T2DM women seem to reach LDL-C targets less frequently than men. Aim. To explore age- and gender-related differences in LDL-C management in a large sample of outpatients with T2DM. Results. Overall, 415.294 patients (45.3% women) from 236 diabetes centers in Italy were included. Women were older and more obese, with longer diabetes duration, higher total-cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C serum levels compared to men (). Lipid profile was monitored in ~75% of subjects, women being monitored less frequently than men, irrespective of age. More women did not reach the LDL-C target as compared to men, particularly in the subgroup treated with lipid-lowering medications. The between-genders gap in reaching LDL-C targets increased with age and diabetes duration, favouring men in all groups. Conclusions. LDL-C management is worst in women with T2DM, who are monitored and reach targets less frequently than T2DM men. Similarly to men, they do not receive medications despite high LDL-C. These gender discrepancies increase with age and diabetes duration, exposing older women to higher CHD risk.