International Journal of Endocrinology / 2016 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Disproportionately Elevated Proinsulin Levels as an Early Indicator of β-Cell Dysfunction in Nondiabetic Offspring of Chinese Diabetic Patients

Table 2

Comparisons of insulin resistance and β-cell function in different groups.

Non-FDRs
NGT
FDRsT2DM value
NGTPre-DM

Ln HOMA-IR0.21 ± 0.050.30 ± 0.040.5 ± 0.070.77 ± 0.0 7<0.001
QUICKI0.72 ± 0.010.69 ± 0.010.65 ± 0.020.62 ± 0.01<0.001
Ln HOMA-B4.45 ± 0.064.51 ± 0.054.39 ± 0.093.24 ± 0.08<0.001
Ln fasting SI (mIU/L)1.74 ± 0.051.82 ± 0.041.99 ± 0.071.75 ± 0.060.02
Ln 2 h SI (mIU/L)3.36 ± 0.083.57 ± 0.064.24 ± 0.113.53 ± 0.10<0.001
Ln fasting PI (pmol/L)1.39 ± 0.061.86 ± 0.042.29 ± 0.082.69 ± 0.08<0.001
Ln 2 h PI (pmol/L)3.28 ± 0.073.76 ± 0.064.36 ± 0.103.87 ± 0.09<0.001
Ln fasting PI/SI2.29 ± 0.062.67 ± 0.052.84 ± 0.093.56 ± 0.08<0.001
Ln 2 h PI/SI2.56 ± 0.072.80 ± 0.062.75 ± 0.102.92 ± 0.10<0.01
Hyperproinsulinemia (%)4.921.345.564.5<0.001
High fasting PI/SI (%)4.519.524.558.6<0.001
Hyperinsulinemia (%)4.511.527.317.1<0.001
Insulin resistance (%)5.417.633.854.6<0.001

Notes: data are means ± SEM or percentages (%) with adjustment of age, sex, and waist circumference.
and , compared with NGT-non-FDRs.
 and  , compared with NGT-FDRs.
and , compared with pre-DM-FDRs.
Ln: natural log-transformed.
NGT-non-FDRs, normal glucose tolerance subjects with no family history of diabetes; NGT-FDRs, the first-degree relatives of T2DM with normal glucose tolerance; pre-DM-FDR, first-degree relatives of T2DM with prediabetes; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HOMA-B, homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; PI, proinsulin; SI, specific insulin; PI/SI, proinsulin-to-specific insulin ratio.

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