Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2016, Article ID 4802720, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4802720
Research Article

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Is Increased in Hypertensive Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

The Center for Hypertension of the People’s Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, The Center for Diagnosis, Treatment and Research of Hypertension in Xinjiang, No. 91, TianChi Road, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830001, China

Received 11 April 2016; Revised 7 September 2016; Accepted 22 September 2016

Academic Editor: Javier Salvador

Copyright © 2016 Nanfang Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Young, M. Palta, J. Dempsey, J. Skatrud, S. Weber, and S. Badr, “The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 328, no. 17, pp. 1230–1235, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Sánchez-de-la-Torre, F. Campos-Rodriguez, and F. Barbé, “Obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiovascular disease,” The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 61–72, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. S. Cooper and B. Biondi, “Subclinical thyroid disease,” The Lancet, vol. 379, no. 9821, pp. 1142–1154, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Ochs, R. Auer, D. C. Bauer et al., “Meta-analysis: subclinical thyroid dysfunction and the risk for coronary heart disease and mortality,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 148, no. 11, pp. 832–845, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. O. Åsvold, T. Bjøro, T. I. L. Nilsen, and L. J. Vatten, “Association between blood pressure and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration within the reference range: a population-based study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 841–845, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. A. Massumi and J. L. Winnacker, “Severe depression of the respiratory center in myxedema,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 876–882, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. V. Fatourechi, “Subclinical hypothyroidism: an update for primary care physicians,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Attal and P. Chanson, “Endocrine aspects of obstructive sleep apnea,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 483–495, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. Yee, P. Liu, C. Philips, and R. Grunstein, “Neuroendocrine changes in sleep apnea,” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 475–481, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Attal and P. Chanson, “Endocrine aspects of obstructive sleep apnea,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 483–495, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Mete, Y. Yalcin, D. Berker et al., “Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and thyroid diseases,” Endocrine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 723–728, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. O. Resta, P. Carratù, G. E. Carpagnano et al., “Influence of subclinical hypothyroidism and T4 treatment on the prevalence and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS),” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 893–898, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. C. Bozkurt, B. Karbek, E. Cakal, H. Firat, M. Ozbek, and T. Delibasi, “The association between severity of obstructive sleep apnea and prevalence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 981–988, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. O. Resta, N. Pannacciulli, G. Di Gioia, A. Stefàno, M. P. Foschino Barbaro, and G. De Pergola, “High prevalence of previously unknown subclinical hypothyroidism in obese patients referred to a sleep clinic for sleep disordered breathing,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 248–253, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Carratù, S. Dragonieri, and O. Resta, “Lack of association between OSAS and hypothyroidism,” Endocrine, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 821, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. A. Bahammam, M. M. Sharif, A. A. Jammah, and A. S. Bahammam, “Prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 105, no. 11, pp. 1755–1760, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Biondi and D. S. Cooper, “The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 76–131, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Lenfant, A. V. Chobanian, D. W. Jones, and E. J. Roccella, “Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7): resetting the hypertension sails,” Hypertension, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1178–1179, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2), Diagnostic and Coding Manual, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Westchester, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2005.
  20. M. I. Surks, E. Ortiz, G. H. Daniels et al., “Subclinical thyroid disease: scientific review and guidelines for diagnosis and management,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 291, no. 2, pp. 228–238, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. Teng, Z. Shan, X. Teng et al., “Effect of iodine intake on thyroid diseases in China,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 26, pp. 2783–2793, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. H. Pearce, G. Brabant, L. H. Duntas et al., “2013 ETA guideline: management of subclinical hypothyroidism,” European Thyroid Journal, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 215–228, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. T. P. Segerson, J. Kauer, H. C. Wolfe et al., “Thyroid hormone regulates TRH biosynthesis in the paraventricular nucleus of the rat hypothalamus,” Science, vol. 238, no. 4823, pp. 78–80, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Mullur, Y.-Y. Liu, and G. A. Brent, “Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 355–382, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Grunenwald and P. Caron, “Central hypothyroidism in adults: better understanding for better care,” Pituitary, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 169–175, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. P. Mordes, F. D. Blume, S. Boyer, M. R. Zheng, and L. E. Braverman, “High-altitude pituitary-thyroid dysfunction on Mount Everest,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 308, no. 19, pp. 1135–1138, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. Meston, R. J. O. Davies, R. Mullins, C. Jenkinson, J. A. H. Wass, and J. R. Stradling, “Endocrine effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure in male patients with obstructive sleep apnoea,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 254, no. 5, pp. 447–454, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. R. Grunstein, D. J. Handelsman, S. J. Lawrence, C. Blackwell, I. D. Caterson, and C. E. Sullivan, “Neuroendocrine dysfunction in sleep apnea: reversal by continuous positive airways pressure therapy,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 352–358, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Brabant, K. Prank, U. Ranft et al., “Physiological regulation of circadian and pulsatile thyrotropin secretion in normal man and woman,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 403–409, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Kuhs, D. Färber, and R. Tölle, “Serum prolactin, growth hormone, total corticoids, thyroid hormones and thyrotropine during serial therapeutic sleep deprivation,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 857–864, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. Abrams, “Long-term sleep apnea as a pathogenic factor for cell-mediated autoimmune disease,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1024–1027, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. M. Mullington, M. Haack, M. Toth, J. M. Serrador, and H. K. Meier-Ewert, “Cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation,” Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 294–302, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus