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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2016, Article ID 5872423, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5872423
Research Article

Pharmacogenetics of Risperidone and Cardiovascular Risk in Children and Adolescents

1Department of Psychiatry, School of Medical Sciences (FCM), State University of Campinas (Unicamp), 13083-887 Campinas, SP, Brazil
2Laboratory of Human Genetics, Center for Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering (CBMEG), Unicamp, 13083-875 Campinas, SP, Brazil
3Growth and Development Laboratory, Center for Investigation in Pediatrics (CIPED), FCM-Unicamp, 13083-887 Campinas, SP, Brazil
4Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, FCM-Unicamp, 13083-887 Campinas, SP, Brazil

Received 26 August 2015; Revised 11 December 2015; Accepted 20 December 2015

Academic Editor: Javier Salvador

Copyright © 2016 Amilton Dos Santos-Júnior et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. To identify the frequency of obesity and metabolic complications in child and adolescent users of risperidone. Potential associations with clinical parameters and SNPs of the HTR2C, DRD2, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, and CYP2D6 genes were analyzed. Methods. Samples from 120 risperidone users (8–20 years old) were collected and SNPs were analyzed, alongside assessment of chronological and bone ages, prescribed and weight-adjusted doses, use of other psychotropic drugs, waist circumference, BMI -scores, blood pressure, HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, transaminases, and leptin. Results. Thirty-two (26.7%) patients were overweight and 5 (4.2%) obese. Hypertension was recorded in 8 patients (6.7%), metabolic syndrome in 6 (5%), and increased waist circumference in 20 (16.7%). The HOMA-IR was high for 22 patients (18.3%), while total cholesterol and triglycerides were high in 20 (16.7%) and 41 (34.2%) patients, respectively. SNP associations were found for LEP, HTR2C, and CYP2D6 with BMI; CYP2D6 with blood pressure, ALT, and HOMA-IR; HTR2C and LEPR with leptin levels; MC4R and DRD2 with HOMA-IR; HTR2C with WC; and LEP with ALT. Conclusions. Although not higher than in the general pediatric population, a high frequency of patients was overweight/obese, with abnormalities in metabolic parameters and some pharmacogenetic associations.