International Journal of Endocrinology / 2016 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Biology of Beige Adipocyte and Possible Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity

Figure 2

Determining factors in differentiation of beige adipose cell. The adipose mesenchymal cells can be influenced by the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and take decision to differentiate into fat cells when pRb is blocked. The EID1 protein among others can determine the differentiation of beige cells adipocytes from mesenchymal stem cells (see [11]). BMP7 triggers production of mesenchymal adipose cells to brown adipose cells. Both exercise and some hormones can increase the capacity of adipose stem cells to differentiate into beige adipocytes. Recently, it has been observed that cells of the innate immune system type 2 can secrete interleukins stimulating the production of IL-4 by eosinophils and norepinephrine production through macrophage type 2. IL-33 has the ability to activate the differentiation of beige adipocytes directly. ADMSC: adipose mesenchymal stem cell; PC1: Prohormone Convertase 1; ILC-2: group 2 innate lymphoid cells; BMP7: bone morphogenic protein 7; EID1: EP300-interacting inhibitor of differentiation 1; M2 ATM: adipose tissue macrophage 2; FGF21: fibroblastic growth factor 21; PPARg: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; TR: thyroid receptors; FXR: farnesoid X receptor; BNP: brain natriuretic factor.

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