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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2017, Article ID 3506871, 7 pages
Research Article

The Determinants of Leptin Levels in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Saudi Males

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence should be addressed to Mona Hmoud Al Sheikh; as.ude.dou@hkiehsm

Received 19 September 2016; Revised 28 November 2016; Accepted 20 December 2016; Published 1 March 2017

Academic Editor: Małgorzata Kotula-Balak

Copyright © 2017 Mona Hmoud Al Sheikh. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. This study aimed to identify the main determinants of serum leptin levels. Methods. A sample of 113 Saudi adult males (55 diabetic and 58 nondiabetic) was selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria identified below. Blood samples were taken from participants after fasting for 12 hours. For diabetic patients, the insulin dose was given 12 hours before. In general, the study instrument consisted of blood biochemical tests. Metabolic parameters, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG), and adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and resistin, were measured. Multivariate model was utilized to identify the relationship between leptin levels and the independent variables. Results. When adjusted for resistin in the diabetic group, the results demonstrated a significant relationship between visfatin, LDL and TG, and leptin levels (). However, when controlled for resistin, the effect of LDL and TG disappeared while that of visfatin stayed in the model. For the nondiabetic group, the results indicated a significant relationship between insulin, BMI, and leptin levels when adjusted for resistin (). However, the effect of insulin disappeared when the model was controlled for resistin. The study results found no relationship between leptin and adiponectin levels in either the diabetic or nondiabetic group and whether adjusted or controlled for resistin. Conclusion. This study provided better understanding of the metabolism of leptin and unveiled the major determinants of leptin levels in diabetic and nondiabetic males. In conclusion, these results show that the association between leptin and metabolic parameters decreases with the progress of disease.