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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2017, Article ID 5076732, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5076732
Review Article

Latent Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue

1Russian Cardiology Research and Production Centre, Moscow 121552, Russia
2Faculty of Basic Medicine, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119192, Russia
3M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University Medical Center, Moscow 119192, Russia
4Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow 117031, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed to I. S. Stafeev; moc.liamg@veefatsiruy

Received 3 May 2017; Accepted 17 July 2017; Published 17 August 2017

Academic Editor: Claudio Casella

Copyright © 2017 I. S. Stafeev et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Obesity is a growing problem in modern society and medicine. It closely associates with metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hepatic and cardiovascular diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, atherosclerosis, myocarditis, and hypertension. Obesity is often associated with latent inflammation; however, the link between inflammation, obesity, T2DM, and cardiovascular diseases is still poorly understood. Insulin resistance is the earliest feature of metabolic disorders. It mostly develops as a result of dysregulated insulin signaling in insulin-sensitive cells, as compared to inactivating mutations in insulin receptor or signaling proteins that occur relatively rare. Here, we argue that inflammatory signaling provides a link between latent inflammation, obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic disorders. We further hypothesize that insulin-activated PI3-kinase pathway and inflammatory signaling mediated by several IκB kinases may constitute negative feedback leading to insulin resistance at least in the fat tissue. Finally, we discuss perspectives for anti-inflammatory therapies in treating the metabolic diseases.