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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2017, Article ID 7057852, 9 pages
Research Article

Prolonged Survival of Subcutaneous Allogeneic Islet Graft by Donor Chimerism without Immunosuppressive Treatment

1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Medical Center, Taoyuan, Taiwan
2School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
3Department and Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
4Center for Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan

Correspondence should be addressed to Brend Ray-Sea Hsu; wt.gro.hmgc.mda@8560hb

Received 31 October 2016; Accepted 21 May 2017; Published 21 June 2017

Academic Editor: Dario Iafusco

Copyright © 2017 Brend Ray-Sea Hsu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of this study was to investigate whether tolerance-induced protection of islets in the renal subcapsular space can also prevent subcutaneous allogeneic islets from being rejected. We used bone marrow stem cells from C57BL/6 (H2b) mice to construct donor chimerism in conditioned diabetic BALB/c (H2d) mice and investigated the effect of donor chimerism on engraftment and survival of subcutaneously transplanted allogeneic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. We also studied the anti-inflammatory effect of mesenchymal stem cell on islet engraftment. Full but not low-grade or no donor chimerism was associated with successful engraftment of allogeneic islets and restoration of normoglycemia in the treated diabetic mice. The temporary hyperglycemia was 11 ± 1 versus 19 ± 5 days () for the mice with full donor chimerism with transplanted islets in the renal subcapsular space versus the subcutaneous space, respectively. Cotransplantation of mesenchymal stem cell did not enhance alloislet engraftment. Full multilineage donor chimerism was associated with a higher transient expansion of CD11b+ and Gr-1+ myeloid progenitor cells and effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells. In conclusion, full donor chimerism protected both renal subcapsular and subcutaneous allogeneic islets in this rodent transplantation model.