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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2017, Article ID 7454376, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7454376
Review Article

The Synergistic Interplay between Vitamins D and K for Bone and Cardiovascular Health: A Narrative Review

1Department of Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and the Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands
2Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center and the Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands
4Bad Gleichenberg Clinic, Bad Gleichenberg, Austria
5Department of Cardiology, Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
6Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

Correspondence should be addressed to Adriana J. van Ballegooijen; ln.uv@nejioogellab.nav.ennah

Received 2 June 2017; Accepted 17 August 2017; Published 12 September 2017

Academic Editor: Constantinos Pantos

Copyright © 2017 Adriana J. van Ballegooijen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Vitamins D and K are both fat-soluble vitamins and play a central role in calcium metabolism. Vitamin D promotes the production of vitamin K-dependent proteins, which require vitamin K for carboxylation in order to function properly. The purpose of this review is to summarize available evidence of the synergistic interplay between vitamins D and K on bone and cardiovascular health. Animal and human studies suggest that optimal concentrations of both vitamin D and vitamin K are beneficial for bone and cardiovascular health as supported by genetic, molecular, cellular, and human studies. Most clinical trials studied vitamin D and K supplementation with bone health in postmenopausal women. Few intervention trials studied vitamin D and K supplementation with cardiovascular-related outcomes. These limited studies indicate that joint supplementation might be beneficial for cardiovascular health. Current evidence supports the notion that joint supplementation of vitamins D and K might be more effective than the consumption of either alone for bone and cardiovascular health. As more is discovered about the powerful combination of vitamins D and K, it gives a renewed reason to eat a healthy diet including a variety of foods such as vegetables and fermented dairy for bone and cardiovascular health.