Table 2: Summary of clinical trials of combined vitamin D and K supplementation on cardiovascular health and disease.

Author, yearCountryParticipantsTreatmentStudy durationOutcomeResults for the highest versus the lowest quartiles

Braam et al., 2004 [60]Netherlands postmenopausal women, means age 55, 100% female(i) Placebo
(ii) Minerals + 8 μg vitamin D
(iii) Minerals + 8 μg vitamin D + 1 mg vitamin K1
3 yearsVessel wall characteristicsMDK group unchanged, placebo and minerals + vitamin D decreased elastic properties
Shea et al., 2009 [61]US healthy men and postmenopausal women, mean age 66 y, 60% female   (i) Multivitamin + 10 μg vitamin D and 600 mg calcium
(ii) Multivitamin + vitamin D + calcium + 500 μg vitamin K1
3 yearsCoronary artery calcificationNo difference between vitamin K1 group and control group
Asemi et al., 2016 [62]Iran overweight diabetic patients with coronary heart disease, mean age 65 y, 47% female(i) Placebo
(ii) Vitamin D (10 μg), K (180 μg), and calcium (1000 mg)
12 weeksCarotid IMTLower left carotid intima-media thickness and improved insulin metabolism markers
Chronic kidney disease patients
Kurnatowska et al., 2015 [63],
2016 [64]
Poland nondialyzed CKD patient stages, mean age 60 y, 3–5, 45% female(i) 10 μg cholecalciferol
(ii) 10 μg cholecalciferol + 90 μg MK-7
270 daysCarotid IMTReduced progression IMT, reduced dp-ucMGP and osteocalcin

IMT: intima-media thickness; dp-ucMGP: dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein; MK-7: menaquinone-7.