Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2017, Article ID 7921071, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7921071
Research Article

Cholesterol Synthesis Increased in the MMI-Induced Subclinical Hypothyroidism Mice Model

1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China
2Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shandong Academy of Clinical Medicine, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China
3Scientific Center, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Ling Gao; nc.moc.liamdem@1gniloag

Received 12 October 2016; Revised 30 November 2016; Accepted 6 December 2016; Published 12 March 2017

Academic Editor: Maria L. Dufau

Copyright © 2017 Yongfeng Song et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. J. Canaris, N. R. Manowitz, G. Mayor, and E. C. Ridgway, “The Colorado thyroid disease prevalence study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 526–534, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. D. J. Shin and T. F. Osborne, “Thyroid hormone regulation and cholesterol metabolism are connected through Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein-2 (SREBP-2),” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 36, pp. 34114–34118, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. T. McDermott and E. C. Ridgway, “Subclinical hypothyroidism is mild thyroid failure and should be treated,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 10, pp. 4585–4590, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. P. D. F. Teixeira, V. S. Reuters, M. M. Ferreira et al., “Lipid profile in different degrees of hypothyroidism and effects of levothyroxine replacement in mild thyroid failure,” Translational Research, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 224–231, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. M. Kanaya, F. Harris, S. Volpato, E. J. Perez-Stable, T. Harris, and D. C. Bauer, “Association between thyroid dysfunction and total cholesterol level in an older biracial population: the health, aging and body composition study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 162, no. 7, pp. 773–779, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. S. Turhan, S. Sezer, G. Erden et al., “Plasma homocysteine concentrations and serum lipid profile as atherosclerotic risk factors in subclinical hypothyroidism,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 96–101, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. A. Iqbal, R. Jorde, and Y. Figenschau, “Serum lipid levels in relation to serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and the effect of thyroxine treatment on serum lipid levels in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism: the Tromso Study,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 260, no. 1, pp. 53–61, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. P. Ching, S. P. Davies, and D. G. Hardie, “Analysis of the specificity of the AMP-activated protein kinase by site-directed mutagenesis of bacterially expressed 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, using a single primer variant of the unique-site-elimination method,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 237, no. 3, pp. 800–808, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. L. Tian, Y. Song, M. Xing et al., “A novel role for thyroid-stimulating hormone: up-regulation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase expression through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A/cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element binding protein pathway,” Hepatology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 1401–1409, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. X. Zhang, Y. Song, M. Feng et al., “Thyroid-stimulating hormone decreases HMG-CoA reductase phosphorylation via AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 963–971, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Honda, G. Salen, Y. Matsuzaki et al., “Differences in hepatic levels of intermediates in bile acid biosynthesis between Cyp27(-/-) mice and CTX,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 291–300, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  12. M. S. Brown, J. L. Goldstein, and J. M. Dietschy, “Active and inactive forms of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in the liver of the rat. Comparison with the rate of cholesterol synthesis in different physiological states,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 254, no. 12, pp. 5144–5149, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  13. E. De Marinis, C. Martini, A. Trentalance, and V. Pallottini, “Sex differences in hepatic regulation of cholesterol homeostasis,” The Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 198, no. 3, pp. 635–643, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. Song, C. Xu, S. Shao et al., “Thyroid-stimulating hormone regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis via SREBP-2/HNF-4alpha/CYP7A1 axis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1171–1179, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. F. Ge, L. Peng, C. M. Hu, and T. N. Wu, “Impaired learning and memory performance in a subclinical hypothyroidism rat model induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterisation,” Journal of Neuroendocrinology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 953–961, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Sasaki, K. Kawai, Y. Honjo, and H. Nakamura, “Thyroid hormones and lipid metabolism,” Nihon Rinsho Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 2323–2329, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  17. V. Pallottini, C. Martini, G. Cavallini et al., “Age-related HMG-CoA reductase deregulation depends on ROS-induced p38 activation,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 128, no. 11-12, pp. 688–695, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Henin, M. F. Vincent, H. E. Gruber, and G. Van den Berghe, “Inhibition of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 541–546, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  19. Z. H. Beg, J. A. Stonik, and H. B. Brewer Jr., “Phosphorylation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and modulation of its enzymic activity by calcium-activated and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 260, no. 3, pp. 1682–1687, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  20. Z. H. Beg, J. A. Stonik, and H. B. Brewer Jr., “Phosphorylation and modulation of the enzymic activity of native and protease-cleaved purified hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 262, no. 27, pp. 13228–13240, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  21. S. A. Hawley, M. Davison, A. Woods et al., “Characterization of the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase from rat liver and identification of threonine 172 as the major site at which it phosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 271, no. 44, pp. 27879–27887, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Carling, P. R. Clarke, V. A. Zammit, and D. G. Hardie, “Purification and characterization of the AMP-activated protein kinase. copurification of acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase kinase activities,” European Journal of Biochemistry/FEBS, vol. 186, no. 1-2, pp. 129–136, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. R. Clarke and D. G. Hardie, “Regulation of HMG-CoA reductase: identification of the site phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase in vitro and in intact rat liver,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 2439–2446, 1990. View at Google Scholar