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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2018, Article ID 2637418, 21 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2637418
Review Article

Drugs Involved in Dyslipidemia and Obesity Treatment: Focus on Adipose Tissue

1Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
2Department of Endocrinology, Hospital de Braga, 4710-243 Braga, Portugal
3Department of Public Health and Forensic Sciences, and Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
4I3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal

Correspondence should be addressed to Laura Ribeiro; tp.pu.dem@oriebirl

Received 5 June 2017; Revised 28 September 2017; Accepted 11 October 2017; Published 17 January 2018

Academic Editor: Sabrina Corbetta

Copyright © 2018 Sofia Dias et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome can be defined as a state of disturbed metabolic homeostasis characterized by visceral obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and insulin resistance. The growing prevalence of metabolic syndrome will certainly contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease. Obesity and dyslipidemia are main features of metabolic syndrome, and both can present with adipose tissue dysfunction, involved in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this syndrome. We revised the effects, and underlying mechanisms, of the current approved drugs for dyslipidemia and obesity (fibrates, statins, niacin, resins, ezetimibe, and orlistat; sibutramine; and diethylpropion, phentermine/topiramate, bupropion and naltrexone, and liraglutide) on adipose tissue. Specifically, we explored how these drugs can modulate the complex pathways involved in metabolism, inflammation, atherogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and adipogenesis. The clinical outcomes of adipose tissue modulation by these drugs, as well as differences of major importance for clinical practice between drugs of the same class, were identified. Whether solutions to these issues will be found in further adjustments and combinations between drugs already in use or necessarily in new advances in pharmacology is not known. To better understand the effect of drugs used in dyslipidemia and obesity on adipose tissue not only is challenging for physicians but could also be the next step to tackle cardiovascular disease.