Table 3: Melatonin downregulated and/or inhibited molecular targets in breast, prostate, and ovary cancer. 1: indirect effect on estradiol synthesis in adipocytes.

Synthesis of sex steroids in gonads or tumoral tissuesAntiproliferationApoptosisCell cycleAntiangiogenesisInvasion-metastasis

Breast cancerSTS, 17b-HSD1, aromatase, (IL-6, IL-11, TNF-α)1MUC1, GATA3, c-myc, TGFα, ERα, cyclin D1, COX-2, AKT, PI3K, p300, NF-κBNF-κB, Bcl-2, RAD51, DNA-PKcs, COX-2, AKT, PI3K, NF-κB p300,Cyclin D1VEGF, ANG-1, ANG-2p38, MMP-2, MMP-9, pAKT, OCT4, Ncadherin, vimentin, RSK, β-catenin
Prostate cancerStAR, cytochrome P450SCC, 3β-HSD, GATA-4, SF-1AR, Sirt1, KLK2, KLK3, IGF1R, Ki-67, PCNA, BmalI, NF-KbNF-kB, Bcl-2, survivinCyclin D1VEGF, HIF-1, HIF2, p70S6K, RPS6KLK2, KLK3
Ovary cancerEstradiol secretion stimulated/inhibited depending on the modelp38, pAKT, Her-2, mTOR, MyD88, interferon β, pERK, p90RSK, pHSP27, IRF3, Ki-67NF-kB, TLR4, IKK-α, TRIF, Bcl-2, survivinCDK2, CDK4VEGF, VEGFR2MyD88, TRAF6, IKKα, interferon β, ZEB1, ZEB2, snail, vimentin