Comparison between groups for continuous variables was done using the Wilcoxon test. Comparison for categorical variables was done using the Fisher exact test. Data is presented as median with [interquartile range (IQR)] or as percent (%). ND: subjects without diabetes; T2DM: subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus; BMI: body mass index; GDR: glucose disposal rate. Percent body fat was measured by DXA. Glucose disposal rate was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to calculate insulin resistance. VO2 max was a measure of aerobic exercise capacity. The clinical data and tissue angiogenesis were previously described .