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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2018, Article ID 7515767, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7515767
Review Article

Potential Crosstalk between Fructose and Melatonin: A New Role of Melatonin—Inhibiting the Metabolic Effects of Fructose

Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Basic Sciences, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Chillán, Chile

Correspondence should be addressed to Francisco J. Valenzuela-Melgarejo; lc.oiboibu@aleuznelavf

Received 12 March 2018; Revised 22 May 2018; Accepted 19 June 2018; Published 1 August 2018

Academic Editor: Darío Acuña-Castroviejo

Copyright © 2018 Francisco J. Valenzuela-Melgarejo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Increased consumption of energy-dense foods such as fructose-rich syrups represents one of the significant, growing concerns related to the alarming trend of overweight, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Metabolic pathways affected by fructose involve genes related to lipogenesis/lipolysis, beta-oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis, gluconeogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation pathways, or altering of circadian production of insulin and leptin. Moreover, fructose can be a risk factor during pregnancy elevating the risk of preterm delivery, hypertension, and metabolic impairment of the mother and fetus. Melatonin is a chronobiotic and homeostatic hormone that can modulate the harmful effects of fructose via clock gene expression and metabolic pathways, modulating the expression of PPARγ, SREBF-1 (SREBP-1), hormone-sensitive lipase, C/EBP-α genes, NRF-1, PGC1α, and uncoupling protein-1. Moreover, this hormone has the capacity in the rat of reverting the harmful effects of fructose, increasing the body weight and weight ratio of the liver, and increasing the body weight and restoring the glycemia from mothers exposed to fructose. The aim of this review is to show the potential crosstalk between fructose and melatonin and their potential role during pregnancy.