International Journal of Endocrinology / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Incidence and Risk Factors of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Population-Based Diabetic Foot Cohort (ADFC Study)—Two-Year Follow-Up Study

Table 2

Univariate evaluation of risk factors of diabetic foot ulcer incidence and the comparison between patients developing and not developing DFU.

VariableAll patients ()Patients developing DFU ()Patients not developing DFU () value

Neuropathy<0.001
Yes172 (32.2)21 (70)151 (30)
No362 (67.8)9 (30)353 (70)
Decreased distal pulses0.99
Yes6 (1.1)0 (0)6 (1.1)
No528 (98.9)30 (100)498 (98.9)
ABI0.28
Normal528 (98.9)29 (96.7)499 (99)
Abnormal6 (1.1)1 (3.3)5 (1)
Foot deformity0.001
Yes50 (9.4)8 (26.7)42 (8.3)
No484 (90.6)22 (73.3)462 (91.7)
HbA1c8.73 ± 1.739.31 ± 1.798.69 ± 1.720.058
Retinopathy
Yes106 (19.9)12 (40)94 (18.7)0.004
No428 (80.1)18 (60)410 (81.3)
Nephropathy0.004
Yes47 (8.8)7 (23.3)40 (7.9)
No487 (91.2)23 (76.7)464 (92.1)
History of previous DFU or amputation<0.001
Yes11 (2.1)6 (20)5 (1)
No523 (97.9)24 (80)499 (99)
Insulin consumption<0.001
Yes163 (30.5)22 (73.7)141 (28)
No371 (69.5)8 (26.7)363 (72)
Patient training on feet0.104
Yes77 (14.4)1 (3.3)76 (15.1)
No457 (85.6)29 (96.7)428 (84.9)
Ill-fitting footwear0.433
Yes338 (63.3)21 (70)317 (62.9)
No196 (36.7)9 (30)187 (37.1)
Preventive foot care0.999
Yes4 (0.7)0 (0)4 (0.8)
No530 (99.3)30 (100)500 (99.2)
Toenail care0.246
Yes32 (6)0 (0)31 (6.2)
No502 (94)30 (100)473 (93.8)
Visit the physician less than 3 months ago0.964
Yes358 (67)20 (66.7)338 (67.1)
No176 (33)10 (33.3)166 (32.9)
Having glucometer0.840
Yes383 (71.7)22 (73.3)361 (71.6)
No151 (28.3)8 (26.7)143 (28.4)

is presented in mean ± SD; other variables are presented as N (%).

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