Table of Contents
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume 2011, Article ID 545879, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/545879
Research Article

Morphological Integration of the Modern Human Mandible during Ontogeny

Department of Math & Science, Kirkwood Community College, Iowa City Campus, Iowa City, IA 52240, USA

Received 16 September 2010; Revised 3 January 2011; Accepted 24 February 2011

Academic Editor: Darren Curnoe

Copyright © 2011 Joshua M. Polanski. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Weidenreich, “The extremity bones of sinanthropus pekinensis,” Palaeontologica Sinica New Series D, vol. 5, pp. 1–150, 1941. View at Google Scholar
  2. F. Weidenreich, “The skull of sinanthropus pekinensis: a comparative study of a primitive hominid skull,” Palaeontologica Sinica New Series D, vol. 10, pp. 1–485, 1943. View at Google Scholar
  3. M. L. Moss, “The functional matrix,” in Vistas in Orthodontics, B. Kraus and R. Reidel, Eds., pp. 85–98, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1962. View at Google Scholar
  4. M. L. Moss and L. Salentijn, “The capsular matrix,” American Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 474–490, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. R. Ackermann and J. M. Cheverud, “Phenotypic covariance structure in tamarins (genus Saguinus): a comparison of variation patterns using matrix correlation and common principal component analysis,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 489–501, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. M. Cheverud, “Morphological integration in the saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis) cranium,” American Naturalist, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 63–89, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. M. Cheverud, “Spatial-analysis in morphology illustrated by rhesus macaque cranial growth and integration,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 75, pp. 195–196, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  8. J. M. Cheverud, “Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental morphological integration in the cranium,” Evolution, vol. 36, pp. 499–516, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  9. J. M. Cheverud, “Quantitative genetic analysis of cranial morphology in the cotton-top (Saguinus oedipus) and saddle-back (S. fuscicollis) tamarins,” Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 5–42, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Marroig and J. M. Cheverud, “Cranial evolution in sakis (Pithecia, Platyrrhini) I: interspecific differentiation and allometric patterns,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 266–278, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. G. Marroig and J. M. Cheverud, “A comparison of phenotypic variation and covariation patterns and the role of phylogeny, ecology, and ontogeny during cranial evolution of New World Monkeys,” Evolution, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 2576–2600, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. R. Ackermann, “Ontogenetic integration of the hominoid face,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 175–197, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. R. R. Ackermann, “Patterns of covariation in the hominoid craniofacial skeleton: implications for paleoantropological models,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 167–187, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. S. Strait, “Integration, phylogeny, and the hominid cranial base,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 273–297, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. F. L. Bookstein, P. Gunz, P. Mittercker, H. Prossinger, K. Schæfer, and H. Seidler, “Cranial integration in Homo: singular warps analysis of the midsagittal plane in ontogeny and evolution,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 167–187, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. E. Lieberman, G. E. Krovitz, and B. Mcbratney-Owen, “Testing hypotheses about tinkering in the fossil record: the case of the human skull,” Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B, vol. 302, no. 3, pp. 284–301, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. E. Lieberman, B. M. McBratney, and G. Krovitz, “The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 1134–1139, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. J. M. Polanski and R. G. Franciscus, “Patterns of craniofacial integration in extant Homo, Pan, and Gorilla,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 38–49, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. J. M. Polanski, Morphological Integration of the Cranium during Ontogeny in Homo Sapiens and Pan Troglodytes, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA, 2009.
  20. N. G. Leakey, C. S. Feibel, I. McDougall, and A. Walker, “New four-million-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya,” Nature, vol. 376, no. 6541, pp. 565–571, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. D. Leakey, R. L. Hay, G. H. Curtis, R. E. Drake, M. K. Jackes, and T. D. White, “Fossil hominids from the Laetolil Beds,” Nature, vol. 262, no. 5568, pp. 460–466, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  22. M. Brunet, A. Beauvilain, Y. Coppens, E. Heintz, A. H. E. Moutaye, and D. Pilbeam, “The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad),” Nature, vol. 378, no. 6553, pp. 273–275, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. Broom, “Another new type of fossil ape-man,” Nature, vol. 163, no. 4132, p. 57, 1949. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. P. Groves and V. Mazak, “An approach to the taxonomy of the hominidae: gracile villafranchian hominids of africa,” Casopis pro Mineralogii a Geologii, vol. 20, pp. 225–247, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  25. O. Schoetensack, Der unterkiefer des homo heidelbergensis aus den sanden von mauer bei heidelberg, Wilhelm Engleman, Leipzig, Germany, 1908.
  26. D. J. Daegling and W. L. Hylander, “Biomechanics of torsion in the human mandible,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 73–87, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. L. Hylander, “Mandibular function and biomechanical stress and scaling,” Integrative and Comparative Biology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 315–330, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. W. L. Hylander and K. R. Johnson, “Jaw muscle function and wishboning of the mandible during mastication in macaques and baboons,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 523–547, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. W. L. Hylander, K. R. Johnson, and A. W. Crompton, “Loading patterns and jaw movements during mastication in Macaca fascicularis: a bone-strain, electromyographic, and cineradiographic analysis,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 287–314, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. W. L. Hylander, M. J. Ravosa, C. F. Ross, and K. R. Johnson, “Mandibular corpus strain in primates: further evidence for a functional link between symphyseal fusion and jaw-adductor muscle force,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 257–271, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. F. O'Connor, R. G. Franciscus, and N. E. Holton, “Bite force production capability and efficiency in neandertals and modern humans,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 129–151, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. W. L. Hylander, “Stress and strain in the mandibular symphysis of primates: a test of competing hypotheses,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 1–46, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. J. Daegling, “Biomechanical scaling of the hominoid mandibular symphysis,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 250, no. 1, pp. 12–23, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. S. D. Dobson and E. Trinkaus, “Cross-sectional geometry and morphology of the mandibular symphysis in Middle and Late Pleistocene Homo,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 67–87, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. A. Rosas, “A gradient of size and shape for the Atapuerca sample and Middle Pleistocene hominid variability,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 33, no. 2-3, pp. 319–331, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Fukase, “Functional significance of bone distribution in the human mandibular symphysis,” Anthropological Science, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 55–62, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. W. L. Hylander, M. J. Ravosa, C. F. Ross, C. E. Wall, and K. R. Johnson, “Symphyseal fusion and jaw-adductor muscle force: an EMG study,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 469–492, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. V. H. Stefan and E. Trinkaus, “Discrete trait and dental morphometric affinities of the Tabun 2 mandible,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 443–468, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. A. B. Taylor, “Masticatory form and function in the African apes,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 133–156, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. A. B. Taylor, “Diet and mandibular morphology in African apes,” International Journal of Primatology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 181–201, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. B. Taylor, “Feeding behavior, diet, and the functional consequences of jaw form in orangutans, with implications for the evolution of Pongo,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 377–393, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. M. J. Ravosa, “Size and scaling in the mandible of living and extinct apes,” Folia Primatologica, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 305–322, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. T. Robinson, “The genera and species of the Australopithecinae,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 181–200, 1954. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. T. Robinson, Early Hominid Posture and Locomotion, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1972.
  45. J. T. Robinson, “Prehominid dentition and hominid evolution,” Evolution, vol. 8, pp. 324–334, 1954. View at Google Scholar
  46. R. Kay and F. Grine, “Tooth morphology, wear and diet in australopithecus and paranthropus from southern africa,” in Evolutionary History of the “Robust” Australopithecines, F. Grine, Ed., pp. 427–447, Aldine de Gruyter, New York, NY, USA, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  47. R. F. Kay, “Dental evidence for the diet of Australopithecus,” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 14, pp. 315–341, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. B. A. Wood, “Tooth size and shape and their relevance to studies of hominid evolution,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 292, no. 1057, pp. 65–76, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  49. A. Walker, “Diet and teeth. Dietary hypotheses and human evolution,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 292, no. 1057, pp. 57–64, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. K. E. Willmore, C. C. Roseman, J. Rogers, J. M. Cheverud, and J. T. Richtsmeier, “Comparison of mandibular phenotypic and genetic integration between baboon and mouse,” Evolutionary Biology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 19–36, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. P. Klingenberg, K. Mebus, and J. C. Auffray, “Developmental integration in a complex morphological structure: how distinct are the modules in the mouse mandible?” Evolution and Development, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 522–531, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. P. Klingenberg, L. J. Leamy, and J. M. Cheverud, “Integration and modularity of quantitative trait locus effects on geometric shape in the mouse mandible,” Genetics, vol. 166, no. 4, pp. 1909–1921, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. D. J. Daegling, “Growth in the mandibles of African apes,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 315–341, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. H. Wolpoff, Paleoanthropology, McGraw-Hill, Boston, Mass, USA, 1999.
  55. R. G. Franciscus and E. Trinkaus, “Determinants of retromolar space presence in Pleistocene Homo mandibles,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 577–595, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. E. Trinkaus, “Neandertal faces were not long; modern human faces are short,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 14, pp. 8142–8145, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  57. D. E. Lieberman, “Testing hypotheses about recent human evolution from skulls—integrating morphology, function, development, and phylogeny,” Current Anthropology, vol. 36, pp. 159–197, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  58. H. V. Meredith and J. M. Chadha, “A roentgenographic study of change in head height during childhood and adolescence,” Human Biology, vol. 34, pp. 299–319, 1962. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. L. Zelditch, F. L. Bookstein, and B. L. Lundrigan, “Ontogeny of integrated skull growth in the cotton rat sigmodon fulviventer,” Evolution, vol. 46, pp. 1164–1180, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  60. W. M. Merow and B. H. Broadbent, “Cephalometrics,” in Facial Growth, D. H. Enlow, Ed., pp. 346–395, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  61. B. H. Broadbent, B. H. Broadbent Jr., and W. H. Golden, Bolton Standards of Dentofacial Developmental Growth, C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 1975.
  62. J. F. Pachut and M. M. Fisherkeller, “Changes in colonial development, intraspecific heterochrony, morphological integration, and character heritabilities in two populations of the bryozoan species Batostoma jamesi from the kope formation (Upper Ordovician, Cincinnatian),” Journal of Paleontology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 197–210, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. W. S. Armbruster, V. S. Di Stilio, J. D. Tuxill, T. C. Flores, and J. L. Velásquez Runk, “Covariance and decoupling of floral and vegetative traits in nine neotropical plants: a re-evaluation of Berg's correlation-pleiades concept,” American Journal of Botany, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 39–55, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. A. Adams, “Evolutionary implications of developmental and functional integration in bat wings,” Journal of Zoology, vol. 246, no. 2, pp. 165–174, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P. M. Magwene, “New tools for studying integration and modularity,” Evolution, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1734–1745, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. W. R. Atchley and B. K. Hall, “A model for development and evolution of complex morphological structures,” Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 101–157, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. M. Cheverud, “Developmental integration and the evolution of pleiotropyl,” American Zoologist, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. M. Smith and B. K. Hall, “Development and evolutionary origins of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues,” Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 277–373, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. D. H. Ubelaker, Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Intepretation, Taraxacum, Washington, DC, USA, 1989.
  70. R. E. Bradley, “The relationship between eruption, calcification, and crowding of certain mandibular teeth,” Angle Orthodontist, vol. 41, pp. 230–236, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  71. J. W. Osborn, “Morphogenetic gradients: fields versus clones,” in Development, Function and Evolution of Teeth, P. M. Butler and K. A. Joysey, Eds., pp. 171–201, Academic Press, London, UK, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  72. M. C. Dean and A. D. Beynon, “Tooth crown heights, tooth wear, sexual dimorphism and jaw growth in hominoids,” Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 425–440, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. L. Tompkins, “Human population variability in relative dental development,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 79–102, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. L. Moss, “Functional cranial analysis of mammalian mandibular ramal morphology,” Acta Anatomica, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 423–447, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus