Table of Contents
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 968012, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/968012
Research Article

The African Origin of Complex Projectile Technology: An Analysis Using Tip Cross-Sectional Area and Perimeter

1Interdepartmental Doctoral Program in Anthropological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4364, USA
2Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4364, USA

Received 15 September 2010; Accepted 31 January 2011

Academic Editor: John Gowlett

Copyright © 2011 Matthew L. Sisk and John J. Shea. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. G. Fleagle, Z. Assefa, F. H. Brown, and J. J. Shea, “Paleoanthropology of the Kibish formation, southern Ethiopia: introduction,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 360–365, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Soares, L. Ermini, N. Thomson et al., “Correcting for purifying selection: an improved human mitochondrial molecular clock,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 740–759, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. J. Shea and O. Bar-Yosef, “Who were the Skhul/Qafzeh people?: an archaeological perspective on Eurasia's earliest modern humans,” Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society, vol. 35, pp. 449–466, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  4. R. G. Klein, “Out of Africa and the evolution of human behavior,” Evolutionary Anthropology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 267–281, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. Trinkaus, “Early modern humans,” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 34, pp. 207–230, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. A. Mellars, K. Boyle, O. Bar-Yosef, and C. B. Stringer, Rethinking the human revolution: new behavioural and biological perspectives on the origin and dispersal of modern humans, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research Monographs, Cambridge, UK, 2007.
  7. J. F. O’Connell and J. Allen, “Pre-LGM Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea) and the archaeology of early modern humans,” in Rethinking the Human Revolution: New Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans, P. A. Mellars, K. Boyle, O. Bar-Yosef, and C. B. Stringer, Eds., pp. 395–410, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research Monographs, Cambridge, UK, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  8. R. W. Dennell, The Palaeolithic Settlement of Asia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2009.
  9. P. Endicott, S. Y. W. Ho, and C. Stringer, “Using genetic evidence to evaluate four palaeoanthropological hypotheses for the timing of Neanderthal and modern human origins,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Maca-Meyer, A. M. González, J. M. Larruga, C. Flores, and V. M. Cabrera, “Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions,” BMC Genetics, vol. 2, no. 1, article 13, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Mcbrearty and A. S. Brooks, “The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 453–563, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. A. Mellars, “Rethinking the human revolution: Eurasian and African perspectives,” in New Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans, P. A. Mellars, K. Boyle, O. Bar-Yosef, and C. B. Stringer, Eds., pp. 1–14, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research Monographs, Cambridge, UK, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  13. P. R. Willoughby, The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa: A Comprehensive Guide, Altamira, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  14. C. Finlayson, The Humans Who Went Extinct: Why Neanderthals Died Out and We Survived, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2009.
  15. C. S. Henshilwood and C. W. Marean, “The origin of modern human behavior: critique of the models and their test implications,” Current Anthropology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 627–651, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. L. Kuhn and M. C. Stiner, “What's a mother to do? The division of labor among Neandertals and modern humans in Eurasia,” Current Anthropology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 953–980, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. J. Shea, “The impact of projectile weaponry on late Pleistocene hominin evolution,” in The Evolution of Hominin Diets, J. Hublin and M. P. Richards, Eds., pp. 189–199, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  18. J. J. Shea and M. L. Sisk, “Projectile technology and homo sapiens dispersal from Africa to Western Eurasia,” PaleoAnthropology, vol. 2010, pp. 100–122, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  19. M. L. Sisk and J. J. Shea, “Defining complex projectile technology: a reply to Whittaker,” PaleoAnthropology, vol. 2010, pp. L08–L09, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  20. S. E. Churchill, “Weapon technology, prey size selection and hunting methods in modern hunter-gatherers: implications for hunting in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic,” in Hunting and Animal Exploitation in the Later Palaeolithic and Mesolithic of Eurasia, Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, G. L. Peterkin, H. M. Bricker, and P. A. Mellars, Eds., Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, no. 4, pp. 11–24, American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  21. P. Yu, “From atlatl to bow and arrow: implicating projectile technology in changing systems of hunter-gatherer mobility,” in Projectile Technology in Changing Systems of Hunter-Gatherer Mobility, F. Sellet, R. Greaves, and P. Yu, Eds., University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  22. H. Knecht, Projectile Technology, Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
  23. J. J. Shea, “The origins of lithic projectile point technology: evidence from Africa, the Levant, and Europe,” Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 823–846, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Thieme, “Lower palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany,” Nature, vol. 385, no. 6619, pp. 807–810, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Thieme, “Lower Paleolithic hunting weapons from Schöningen, Germany: the oldest spears in the world,” Acta Anthropologica Sinica, vol. 19, pp. 136–143, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  26. P. Cattelain, “Hunting during the Upper Paleolithic: bow, spearthrower, or both?” in Projectile Technology, H. Knecht, Ed., pp. 213–240, Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  27. J. J. Shea, “Spear points from the Middle Paleolithic of the levant,” Journal of Field Archaeology, vol. 15, pp. 441–450, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  28. R. E. Donahue, M. L. Murphy, and L. Robbins, “Lithic microwear analysis of Middle Stone Age artifacts from White Paintings Rock Shelter, Botswana,” Journal of Field Archaeology, vol. 29, pp. 155–163, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  29. M. Lombard, “A method for identifying stone age hunting tools,” South African Archaeological Bulletin, vol. 60, no. 182, pp. 115–120, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Lombard, “Evidence for change in Middle Stone Age hunting behaviour at Blombos Cave: results of a macrofracture analysis,” South African Archaeological Bulletin, vol. 62, no. 185, pp. 62–67, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. J. Shea, “Middle Paleolithic spear point technology,” in Projectile Technology, H. Knecht, Ed., pp. 79–106, Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  32. S. L. Kuhn and M. C. Stiner, “The antiquity of hunter-gatherers,” in Hunter-gatherers: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, C. Panter-Brick, R. H. Layton, and P. A. Rowley-Conwy, Eds., pp. 99–142, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  33. P. Wiessner, “Style and social information in Kalahari San projectile points,” American Antiquity, vol. 48, pp. 253–276, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  34. J. J. Flenniken, “Stone tool reduction techniques as cultural markers,” in Stone Tool Analysis: Essays in Honor of Don E. Crabtree, M. G. Plew, J. C. Woods, and M. G. Pavesic, Eds., pp. 265–276, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  35. K. M. Ames, K. A. Fuld, and S. Davis, “Dart and arrow points on the Columbia Plateau of Western North America,” American Antiquity, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 287–325, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. L. Bettinger, J. F. O'Connell, and D. H. Thomas, “Projectile points as time markers in the Great Basin,” American Anthropologist, vol. 93, pp. 166–172, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  37. J. Flenniken and P. Wilke, “Typology, technology, and chronology of Great Basin dart points,” American Anthropologist, vol. 91, pp. 149–158, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  38. P. J. Wilke and J. J. Flenniken, “Missing the point—rebuttal,” American Anthropologist, vol. 93, pp. 172–173, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  39. G. H. Odell and F. Cowan, “Experiments with spears and arrows on animal targets,” Journal of Field Archaeology, vol. 13, pp. 194–212, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. L. Sisk and J. J. Shea, “Experimental use and quantitative performance analysis of triangular flakes (Levallois points) used as arrowheads,” Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 2039–2047, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. V. Waweru, Middle Stone Age Archaeology of the Cartwright’s Site, Kenya, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn, USA, 2007.
  42. N. M. Waguespack, T. A. Surovell, A. Denoyer et al., “Making a point: wood-versus stone-tipped projectiles,” Antiquity, vol. 83, no. 321, pp. 786–800, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. S. Brooks, J. E. Yellen, L. Nevell, and G. Hartman, “Projectile technologies of the African MSA: implications for modern human origins,” in Transitions Before the Transition, E. Hovers and S. L. Kuhn, Eds., pp. 233–255, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  44. P. Villa, P. Boscato, F. Ranaldo, and A. Ronchitelli, “Stone tools for the hunt: points with impact scars from a Middle Paleolithic site in southern Italy,” Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 850–859, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. Shea, Z. Davis, and K. Brown, “Experimental tests of middle palaeolithic spear points using a calibrated crossbow,” Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 807–816, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Lombard and J. Pargeter, “Hunting with Howiesons Poort segments: pilot experimental study and the functional interpretation of archaeological tools,” Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 2523–2531, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. S. Hughes, “Getting to the point: evolutionary change in prehistoric weaponry,” Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 345–408, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. F. Riede, “The loss and re-introduction of bow-and-arrow technology: a case study from the Southern Scandinavian Late Palaeolithic,” Lithic Technology, vol. 34, pp. 27–45, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  49. D. H. Thomas, “Arrowheads and atlatl darts—how stones got shaft,” American Antiquity, vol. 43, pp. 461–472, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  50. M. J. Shott, “Stones and shafts redux: the metric discrimination of chipped-stone dart and arrow points,” American Antiquity, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 86–101, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. Greaves, “Hunting and multifunctional use of bows and arrows: ethnoarchaeology of technological organization among the Pumé hunters of Venezuela,” in Projectile Technology, H. Knecht, Ed., pp. 287–320, Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  52. T. Minichillo, Middle Stone Age lithic study, South Africa: an examination of modern human origins, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 2005.
  53. J. D. Clark, K. D. Williamson, J. W. Michels, and C. A. Marean, “A middle stone age occupation site at Porc Epic Cave, Dire Dawa (east-central Ethiopia), part II,” The African Archaeological Review, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 37–71, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Cheshier and R. L. Kelly, “Projectile point shape and durability: the effect of thickness:Length,” American Antiquity, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 353–363, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Lombard and L. Phillipson, “Indications of bow and stone-tipped arrow use 64 000 years ago in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa,” Antiquity, vol. 84, no. 325, pp. 635–648, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  56. A. Yaroshevich, D. Kaufman, D. Nuzhnyy, O. Bar-Yosef, and M. Weinstein-Evron, “Design and performance of microlith implemented projectiles during the Middle and the Late Epipaleolithic of the Levant: experimental and archaeological evidence,” Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 368–388, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar