International Journal of Evolutionary Biology / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Divergence in Defence against Herbivores between Males and Females of Dioecious Plant Species

Table 2

List of dioecious species of angiosperms studied for dimorphic herbivore damage, and information on assessment of reproductive allocation, growth rate and resistance.

SpeciesSex with greatest Reference Review
DamageReproductive allocationGrowth rateResistance

Alismatales
 Araceae
  Arisaema triphyllum Mnmnmnd (N, C:N, leaf total phenolics) [24]3
FF (total dry mass) [25]

Arecales
 Arecaceae
  Chamaedorea alternans (= C. tepejilote)ndnmnmnm [26]1
F [27]
M (leaf production) [28]

Asterales
 Asteraceae
  Baccharis concinna ndnmnmnm [29]
nmnd (leaf production)
M (shoot length)
nm [30]3
  B. dracunculifolia ndnmnm [31]3
nd (shoot length) [32, 33]
  B. halimifolia M, F, nd, depends on herbivorend (flowers/shoot)MF (resin) [34]1

Brassiclaes
 Capparaceae
  Forchhammeria pallida ndnmnmnm [35]3
 Caryophyllaceae
  Silene dioica MM (during flowering)Fnm [36]1
Fnmnd (length of infected shoots)nm [37]3
 Chenopodiaceae
  Atriplex canescens Fnmnmnm [38]3
Mnmnm; nd (height, width, fresh weight in spring), F (FW in winter)nm [39]4
(F) [40]; the species includes hermaphrodites
  A. vesicaria Fnmnmnm [41, 42]1
 Nyctaginaceae
  Neea psychotrioides MMnd (stem production)nm [43]3
 Polygonaceae
  Rumex acetosa M??? T. Elmqvist unpublished data1
  R. acetosella M, F, ndndnmnm [44]1
F (ramet production) [45]

Fagales
 Myricaceae
  Myrica gale M, ndnmnmnm L. Ericson unpublished data1
ndnmnmF (1-digestibility), nd (phenolics, p-glycosides, tannins) [46]

Laurales
 Lauraceae
  Lindera benzoin ndnmnd, M, depending on yearnm [47]1
M (flowers/shoot), F (N and biomass)M (plant volume)F (phenolics on leaves, but nd on stems) [48]

Malpighiales
 Salicaceae
  Populus tremula MnmnmM (phenolics), nd (p-glycosides, tannins, digestibility) [46]1
  Salix caprea M, nmnmF (1-digestibility), nd (phenolics, p-glycosides, tannins) [46]1
ndnd [49]
ndnmnmnm [50]4
  S. cinerea M, nd, varies by yearnmnmnm [51]1
nd [52]
nd (phenolic glycosides) [53]
  S. eleagnos Mnmnmnm [50]3
  S. fragilis ndnmnmnm [50]4
  S. lanata ndnmnmnm [54]3
  S. lasiolepis M (4 of 5 spp. of sawflies)M (shoot length)F (phenols, marginally significant) [55]1
nd (miners, gallers)nmnmnm [56]1
  S. myrsinifolia-phylicifolia M (at high plant density)nmnmnm [36]1
Mnmnd (new shoots)nm [57]1
M (in high productivity habitat; decreases at higher herbivore pressure)nmnd (biomass)nm [49]1
  S. pentandra MnmnmF (phenolics)
M (1-digestibility)
[46]1
  S. purpurea ndnmnmnm [50]4
  S. sericea M marginalnmnmnm [58]3
ndnd [53]
  S. viminalis ndnmnd (regrowth after pruning)nm [59]3
ndnmnmnm [50]4
  S. x rubens ndnmnmnm [50]4

Pandanales
 Pandanaceae
  Freycinetia arborea Mnmnmnm [60]2
  F. reineckei Mnmnmnm [60]2, 3

Rosales
 Eleagnaceae
  Hippophae rhamnoides M ???? L. Ericson unpublished data1
M [61]
 Rhamnaceae
  Rhamnus alpinus ndM (anthraquinones) [62]3
Fnd if age < 10 y
M if age > 10 y
[63]
 Rosaceae
  Rubus chamaemorus M, ndnmnmnd [64]1
F but varies with fruit set [65]
 Urticaceae
  Urtica dioica M ???? T. Elmqvist unpublished data1

Sapindales
 Sapindaceae
  Acer negundo MnmM (growth rings)nd (astringency, total phenols, nitrogen, toughness), F (index of defence) [66]1
variable: F near streams; M away from streams [67]
nd [68]
F [69]
  Pistacia lentiscus ndnmnmnd (N) [70]1
 Simaroubaceae
  Simarouba glauca Mnmnmtwo flavonoid compounds on female flowers not present in male flowers [71]3

F: female, M: male, nd: no statistically significant intersexual differences, nm: not measured, CT: condensed tannins, TNC: total non-structural carbohydrates, N: nitrogen content (herbivores usually attracted to greater concentrations).
1: Ågren et al. 1999 [72], Table 2.
2: Ågren et al. 1999 [72], Table 3.
3: Cornelissen and Stiling 2005 [73].
4: Not mentioned in any of 1–3 above.