International Journal of Evolutionary Biology / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Divergence in Defence against Herbivores between Males and Females of Dioecious Plant Species

Table 2

List of dioecious species of angiosperms studied for dimorphic herbivore damage, and information on assessment of reproductive allocation, growth rate and resistance.

SpeciesSex with greatest Reference Review
DamageReproductive allocationGrowth rateResistance

  Arisaema triphyllum Mnmnmnd (N, C:N, leaf total phenolics) [24]3
FF (total dry mass) [25]

  Chamaedorea alternans (= C. tepejilote)ndnmnmnm [26]1
F [27]
M (leaf production) [28]

  Baccharis concinna ndnmnmnm [29]
nmnd (leaf production)
M (shoot length)
nm [30]3
  B. dracunculifolia ndnmnm [31]3
nd (shoot length) [32, 33]
  B. halimifolia M, F, nd, depends on herbivorend (flowers/shoot)MF (resin) [34]1

  Forchhammeria pallida ndnmnmnm [35]3
  Silene dioica MM (during flowering)Fnm [36]1
Fnmnd (length of infected shoots)nm [37]3
  Atriplex canescens Fnmnmnm [38]3
Mnmnm; nd (height, width, fresh weight in spring), F (FW in winter)nm [39]4
(F) [40]; the species includes hermaphrodites
  A. vesicaria Fnmnmnm [41, 42]1
  Neea psychotrioides MMnd (stem production)nm [43]3
  Rumex acetosa M??? T. Elmqvist unpublished data1
  R. acetosella M, F, ndndnmnm [44]1
F (ramet production) [45]

  Myrica gale M, ndnmnmnm L. Ericson unpublished data1
ndnmnmF (1-digestibility), nd (phenolics, p-glycosides, tannins) [46]

  Lindera benzoin ndnmnd, M, depending on yearnm [47]1
M (flowers/shoot), F (N and biomass)M (plant volume)F (phenolics on leaves, but nd on stems) [48]

  Populus tremula MnmnmM (phenolics), nd (p-glycosides, tannins, digestibility) [46]1
  Salix caprea M, nmnmF (1-digestibility), nd (phenolics, p-glycosides, tannins) [46]1
ndnd [49]
ndnmnmnm [50]4
  S. cinerea M, nd, varies by yearnmnmnm [51]1
nd [52]
nd (phenolic glycosides) [53]
  S. eleagnos Mnmnmnm [50]3
  S. fragilis ndnmnmnm [50]4
  S. lanata ndnmnmnm [54]3
  S. lasiolepis M (4 of 5 spp. of sawflies)M (shoot length)F (phenols, marginally significant) [55]1
nd (miners, gallers)nmnmnm [56]1
  S. myrsinifolia-phylicifolia M (at high plant density)nmnmnm [36]1
Mnmnd (new shoots)nm [57]1
M (in high productivity habitat; decreases at higher herbivore pressure)nmnd (biomass)nm [49]1
  S. pentandra MnmnmF (phenolics)
M (1-digestibility)
  S. purpurea ndnmnmnm [50]4
  S. sericea M marginalnmnmnm [58]3
ndnd [53]
  S. viminalis ndnmnd (regrowth after pruning)nm [59]3
ndnmnmnm [50]4
  S. x rubens ndnmnmnm [50]4

  Freycinetia arborea Mnmnmnm [60]2
  F. reineckei Mnmnmnm [60]2, 3

  Hippophae rhamnoides M ???? L. Ericson unpublished data1
M [61]
  Rhamnus alpinus ndM (anthraquinones) [62]3
Fnd if age < 10 y
M if age > 10 y
  Rubus chamaemorus M, ndnmnmnd [64]1
F but varies with fruit set [65]
  Urtica dioica M ???? T. Elmqvist unpublished data1

  Acer negundo MnmM (growth rings)nd (astringency, total phenols, nitrogen, toughness), F (index of defence) [66]1
variable: F near streams; M away from streams [67]
nd [68]
F [69]
  Pistacia lentiscus ndnmnmnd (N) [70]1
  Simarouba glauca Mnmnmtwo flavonoid compounds on female flowers not present in male flowers [71]3

F: female, M: male, nd: no statistically significant intersexual differences, nm: not measured, CT: condensed tannins, TNC: total non-structural carbohydrates, N: nitrogen content (herbivores usually attracted to greater concentrations).
1: Ågren et al. 1999 [72], Table 2.
2: Ågren et al. 1999 [72], Table 3.
3: Cornelissen and Stiling 2005 [73].
4: Not mentioned in any of 1–3 above.