International Journal of Evolutionary Biology / 2012 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Divergence in Defence against Herbivores between Males and Females of Dioecious Plant Species

Table 3

Studies of defence on dioecious species published after 2004, or published earlier but not mentioned in Ågren et al or Cornelissen and Stiling’s reviews.

SpeciesSex with greatest Herbivores Reference
DamageReproductive allocationGrowth rateResistance

  Chamaedorea alternans (= C. tepejilote) MFFFChrysomelid beetles[74]
  C. pinnatifrons MFMFChrysomelid beetles[74]
  C. ernesti-augusti MFMFChrysomelid beetles[74]

  Ilex glabra nd; marginally F after floweringndndnmlepidopteran larvae and leaf spot (fungal pathogens)[75]

  Sclerocarya birrea Fnd (wood/reproductive shoot)nmnd (wood density, branch breakability)Elephants[76]
  Spondias purpurea FnmnmM (N, TNC)Cerambycid beetle[77]

  Salix discolor ndnmnmM (mortality of herbivore)Leaf galler[78]
  S. polaris nmFndnd (phenolics, CT)Reindeer[79]
  S. arctica ndnmndnmMuskox[80]
  S. planifolia nd FnmnmInsects[81]

  Lindera obtusiloba ndnmnmnmUnspecified[82]
  L. praecox ndnmnmnmUnspecified[82]
  L. umbellata ndnmnmnmUnspecified[82]
  L. erythrocarpa ndnmnmnmUnspecified[82]

Unplaced (Euasterids I)
  Nemophila menziesii ndnmnmnmLarvae of lepidoptera (2 spp.) and coleoptera (1 sp.)[83]

F: female, M: male, nd: no statistically significant intersexual differences, nm: not measured, CT: condensed tannins, TNC: total non-structural carbohydrates, N: nitrogen content (herbivores usually attracted to greater concentrations).