International Journal of Evolutionary Biology / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities

Table 2

Measurements and indices included in this study.

Measurement/indexAcronym

Maximum glabello-occipital cranial lengthGOL
Maximum nasio-occipital cranial lengthNOL
Basion-nasion (cranial base) lengthBNL
Basion-bregma cranial height BBH
Maximum transverse cranial breadth (above the supramastoid crests)XCB
Maximum transverse frontal breadthXFB
Bistephanic breadth (frontal breadth across the inferior temporal lines)STB
Bizygomatic facial breadth ZYB
Biauricular breadth (across the roots of the zygomatic processes)AUB
Minimum cranial breadth (across the infratemporal crests)WCB
Biasterionic (maximum occipital) breadthASB
Basion-prosthion (facial) lengthBPL
Nasion-prosthion (upper facial) heightNPH
Nasal heightNLH
Orbital height (left)OBH
Orbital breadth from dacryon (left)OBB
Bijugal breadth (breadth across the middle malars)JUB
Nasal breadthNLB
External palate breadthMAB
Mastoid process height MDH
Mastoid process breadthMDB
Bimaxillary (inferior malar) breadthZMB
Zygomaxillary subtense (subspinale projection from bimaxillary breadth)SSS
Bifrontal (upper facial) breadthFMB
Nasion-frontal subtense (nasion projection from binfrontal breadth)NAS
Biorbital breadth (breadth from dacryon to ectoconchion)EKB
Dacryon subtense (dacryon projection from biorbital breadth)DKS
Interorbital breadth (across the dacrya)DKB
Nasodacryal subtense (least projection of nasal bones from interorbital breadth)NDS
Simotic chord (least breadth across the nasal bones)WNB
Simotic subtense (projection of the nasal bridge from simotic chord)SIS
Inferior malar length (left)IML
Maximum malar length (left)XML
Malar subtense (greatest projection of malar from maximum malar length)MLS
Cheek height (left)WMH
Supraorbital projection (projection of left superciliary ridge)SOS
Glabella projection (greatest projection from nasion-supraglabellare chord)GLS
Foramen magnum (basion to opisthion) lengthFOL
Frontal (nasion to bregma) chordFRC
Frontal subtense (greatest projection from frontal chord)FRS
Frontal fraction (distance from nasion where greatest frontal projection falls)FRF
Parietal (bregma to lambda) chordPAC
Parietal subtense (greatest projection from parietal chord)PAS
Parietal fraction (distance from bregma where greatest parietal projection falls)PAF
Occipital (lambda to opisthion) chordOCC
Occipital subtense (greatest projection from occipital chord)OCS
Occipital fraction (distance from lambda where greatest occipital projection falls)OCF
Cranial index (100 * XCB/GOL)GOL:XCB
Vault length-height index (100 * BBH/GOL)GOL:BBH
Frontal curvature index (100 * FRS/FRC)FRC:FRS
Parietal curvature index (100 * PAS/PAC)PAC:PAS
Occipital curvature index (100 * OCS/OCC)OCC:OCS
Gnathic index (100 * BPL/BNL)BNL:BPL
Posterior craniofacial index (100 * ASB/ZYB)ZYB:ASB
Transverse craniofacial index (100 * ZYB/XCB)XCB:ZYB
Upper facial index (100 * NPH/ZYB)ZYB:NPH
Bizygomatic-bimaxillary index (100 * ZMB/ZYB)ZYB:ZMB
Nasal index (100 * NLB/NLH)NLH:NLB
Orbital index (100 * OBH/OBB)OBB:OBH
Frontal flatness index (100* NAS/FMB)FMB:NAS
Orbital flatness index (100* DKS/EKB)EKB:DKS
Maxillary flatness index (100* SSS/ZMB)ZMB:SSS
Nasodacryal index (100* NDS/DKB)DKB:NDS
Simotic index (100* SIS/WNB)WNB:SIS

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